Task 1: Evidence-based Practice Presenation

AC 1.1 Define what is meant by evidence-based practice and how it is applied within organisations, providing three examples of different types of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led judgments and outcomes for an organisation.

Slide 1

Evidence-based practice is an organisational approach adopted by the human resource department, and it is focused on making effective decisions based on the available evidence in the organisation (Yoo et al., 2019) Evidence-based practice is applied within an organisation through the evaluation of evidences such as employee performance reports, organisations annual financial reports, employees’ feedback, and customer feedback. There are various ways in which the human resource department can enhance the collection of evidence, such as through using surveys, observation, or interviews.

Slide 2

Asking questions is an example of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led judgments and outcomes of an organisation. Asking questions guides in the effective identification of a challenge and creates a guideline on what the decision is focused on. For example, in the case where the organisation is facing an increased turnover rate, some questions that can be formulated include, what is the cause of employee turnover, what aspects can be enhanced to increase employee satisfaction, and what external forces might be impacting employee turnover.

Evidence analysis is the second example of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led judgments, and this entails evaluation of the available evidence in the organisation to establish the most effective decision to be made. For example, evidence generated from employee response surveys may indicate that there is ineffective communication, lack of management support, and poor working conditions. These details are then evaluated effectively by the human resource managers and create effective decisions to enhance employee satisfaction.

Evaluation of options and implementation of a decision is the third example of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led decisions. After the effective evaluation of various evidences, the human resource department creates multiple options for solutions. This needs an effective selection to enhance the implementation of decisions (Yoo et al., 2019). There are various methods in which the organisation can implement decisions, such as through pilot implementation, which entails testing out a decision through running it with the existing operating procedures to measure its effectiveness.

AC 1.2 Explain the reasons why it is important to use data to help assist organisational improvements and why this data need to be timely, ethical, and accurate.

Slide 3

It is important to use data to help assist organisational improvements as it enhances an increase in organisational productivity. The data needs to be timely, ethical, and accurate as it guides in the implementation of effective decisions. This guides in the creation of reference materials whereby organisations managers evaluate the existing organisational data and creates effective decisions, thus creating reference materials (Schildkamp, 2019). For example, the human resource department can evaluate the impact on cultural diversity in organisational production, and the data required to make effective decisions include customers surveys, employees’ feedback, and organisations financial reports.

Additionally, it is important to use data to help assist organisational improvements as it creates a point of reference. It is essential to have effective records management in an organisation that implements evidence-based practice. This creates a pool of reference whereby the human resource department is able to evaluate the data used in the creation of a given evidence. For example, in the implementation of a training and development programme in an organisation, the human resource has to document effective evidence which led to the creation of this decision and thus enhances effective organisational development.

AC 1.3 explain two different types of data measurements and information that can be used by people professionals and how they are each used to collect and collate information to support effective decision-making.

Slide 4

Nominal scale is a data measurement that can be used by people professionals to support effective decision-making, and it focuses on aspects such as gender, culture, and technology. These aspects can be used to collect data in various forms for example, in the case where the organisation is focusing on making a decision based on the implementation of strategies to enhance productivity, they should focus on the impact of the changes on gender, organisational culture or technology (Higgins, and Deeks, 2019). Adopting various technological developments guides in the increase in organisational development. Additionally, ensuring that all the nominal scale aspects are evaluated before decision making allows the organisation to avoid making ineffective decisions that might affect productivity and employees’ wellbeing.

Ordinal scale is also a data measurement that can be used by people professionals to collect information to support effective decision making. Ordinal scale focuses on a precise measure of an aspect and an example includes the financial state of an organisation, it can either be high or low. This is used to collect information on organisations’ performance through aspects such as comparing organisations’ annual financial reports over a given period of time. This provides essential evidence to guide in the effective implementation of a decision focused on enhancing financial development.

AC 1.5 Explain how organisational policies, procedures, and other forms of evidence can be used to support appropriate choices and decisions.

Slide 5

Organisational policies can be used to support appropriate decisions and choices as they create a direction in which the organisation should operate. Organisational policies are the set rules and regulations that govern the operations of an organisation. For example, a policy that focuses on employee wellness can be adopted in the implementation of evidence-based practice, such as implementing new operation procedures (Scholl et al., 2019). Through organisational policies, the human resource department will be able to evaluate if the decision made lies within the organisation’s policies to avoid the implementation of procedures that affect employee wellbeing.

Organisational policies, procedures, and other forms of evidence can be used to support appropriate choices, and it helps in creating long-term decisions. For example, when making decisions based on the recruitment and development of employees, the organisation needs to focus on future developments and changes in production and technology. This creates the need of applying organisational policies and procedures to guide in the selection f the most effective decision, which enhances flexibility without affecting organisational operations.

AC 2.1 Explain the range of internal and external customers and stakeholders that people professionals work with and the part that influencing plays within the relationships.

Slide 6

Internal customers in the organisation entail the organisational employees, and people professionals work with them in enhancing effective decision making. Influencing plays a major role in the development of employees, such as through the implementation of a training and development programme. This influences employees’ skills and behaviour in an organisation and thus are able to work effectively towards the attainment of their targets which are aligned with the organisation’s main strategic goal.

External customers are made up of organisational clients, and they play a major role in influencing people’s practice activities. Through feedback collected based on their satisfaction with the organisation’s products and services, people professionals use the information to enhance effective decision-making (Gimeno-Arias et al., 2021). Additionally, external customers determine the continued growth of the organisation by highlighting their needs, and thus people’s professionals have to adopt changes in the organisation to enhance their satisfaction.

Stakeholders are the main organisational components, and their role is to enhance effective operations to guide the organisation towards the attainment of strategic goals. Stakeholders are made up of the human resource professionals, directors, and financiers. This group influences the work of people professionals as they set targets and development requirements that guide people professionals in decision making.

AC 2.2 Explain what is meant by creating value as a people professional, and identify the benefits of providing value to customers and stakeholders.

Slide 7

Creating value as people professionals for organisational customers entails providing goods or services that match customers’ expectations and which create value for their money. The benefit of providing value to customers is that it increases customer satisfaction, thus leading to organisational development. Through customer satisfaction, people practice professionals are able to collect feedback essential in enhancing effective decision making through seeking customer feedback and recommendations (Freudenreich et al., 2020). Through the recommendations, people practice professionals can identify various opportunities which can be implemented to enhance growth.

Providing value for stakeholders entails creating an effective working environment for employees and enhancing effective management procedures which guide towards the attainment of the organisation’s strategic goals. Through providing value to stakeholders, people practice professionals enhance the creation of a development plan which guides the organisation towards the attainment of strategic goals and develops new opportunities which enhance organisational expansion.

AC 2.4 Drawing on good practice examples, explain how the work that people professionals perform benefits others within an organisation in supporting good practice, open cultures, commitment, and engagement.

Slide 8

People’s practice professionals implement evidence-based practice to benefit organisational stakeholders and support good practice, open cultures, and commitment to engagement. Decisions made in an organisation based on available evidence enhance increased sustainability and creates an aspect of reference (Freudenreich et al., 2020). Organisations stakeholders can effectively evaluate the decision made by people practice professionals and thus creating good practice and accountability.

Additionally, people practice professionals implement training and development programmes aimed at enhancing employees’ skills, and this creates benefits to employees. The training is based on predetermined development areas that people professionals have evaluated, and this enhances the development of employees’ skills contributing to effective productivity. This supports the development of good practice, open cultures, commitment, and engagement.

AC 2.3 explains how social media can be used internally and externally in workplaces to improve communication and organisational practices, highlighting the risks in a work context.

Slide 9

Social media can be used in an organisation to enhance the collection of feedback from employees and organisational customers. This enhances the creation of evidence essential in the enhancement of effective decision-making. Additionally, this method can be adopted in the organisation to enhance effective communication between employees and people practice professionals (Tajudeen et al., 2018). This saves on time as employees do not have to move from one place to the other to complete communication and thus saving of time. This aspect, however creates a risk in the effective collection of feedback as the system is accessible to a wide variety of people, and thus the data collected might be biased and lead to ineffective decision making.

AC 2.5 Outline how you can, in your own work or a voluntary role, achieve and maintain a customer-focused attitude to ensure consistent high standards and customer satisfaction.

Slide 10

In my work, I can achieve and maintain a customer-focused attitude through maintaining professionalism in the interaction with customers. This creates an effective working environment and develops trust among customers. Additionally, collecting customer feedback and recommendations is an essential aspect that guides in the enhancement of effective decision-making based on available evidence. From employees’ feedback collected, the organisation is also able to identify key challenges affecting the continued development.

TASK ONE - BRIEFING PAPER

Employee lifecycle can be defined as the critical stage’s employees go through as they engage with a particular organisation (Persion.com 2021; SpriggHR 2020). There are six distinct stages of employee engagement with a particular organisation. These stages are attraction, recruitment, onboarding, development, retention, and separation (See Fig. 1). According to Persion.com (2021), these stages are passed chronologically. The publication also adds that every stage of the employee lifecycle matters and thus should not be ignored. Now shifting our attention to the attraction (first stage), the process starts immediately after an employee is exposed to a particular brand. This is the key reason that instilling a positive corporate culture is critical.

 Doing that enables potential employees to identify and choose your organisation. The next employee lifecycle is recruitment. During this stage, employers advertise job positions on different platforms to attract their desired talents. A good advertisement entices potential candidates to your employer’s brand (Persion.com 2021). Frameworks such as flexible working, medical cover and retirement benefits are critical to a successful advertisement programme. Regarding onboarding, the stage entails helping new employees blend into organisational culture and truly become successful members of the team. One critical way to achieve this is by identifying and communicating company core values. In summary, onboarding entails showing employees a clear path to success by sharing the organisation’s core values, vision, and mission. Regarding retention, which is one of the most critical stages, the stage entails helping employees achieve their goals. Human resource managers can achieve this by keeping accurate records of the employees’ ambitions, progress, and success (Sandhya and Kumar 2011). These actions help employees become happier and more motivated.

Now shifting our attention to career development, once employees are settled and happy, employers can consider how strategic professional development can help get the best out of their employees. This can be achieved through learning and development and sharing knowledge with junior employees (CIPD Factsheet 2021). The last stage is known as separation. The stage occurs when employees part ways with their employers for various reasons such as retirement, seeking personal opportunities, or enticement from rival companies. The people professions are involved in every stage of the employee lifecycle. The key roles of HR practitioners in employees’ lifecycle include; ensuring organisations follow structure, values, and culture in every employee lifecycle process. Another key role is developing an effective recruitment policy. Additionally, HR practitioners ensure hired individuals have similar values as those of their companies. Another critical role of the HR practitioner is interacting with employees and identifying their needs as well as identifying key reasons for employees leaving the organisation.

AC 1.1 Different stages of the employee lifecycle and the role of people professionals in the lifecycle.

AC 1.2 Different ways in which information for specified roles can be prepared.

The successful recruitment process uses data and evidence to make decisions in various aspects, such as identifying and recruiting the right individuals (Peopledatalabs.com 2021). There are numerous ways through which information can be collected and prepared. The first way is through a job description. This entails describing key essential elements of a given job position in a given organisation. For example, a line manager job description explains the job position’s roles and responsibilities. Another special way information for specified roles can be prepared through person specification. Specifically, it entails a detailed explanation of skills, qualifications, knowledge and experience that a particular job applicant must possess to be considered for a particular job.  The third way is through observation. This entails observing a candidate to identify their suitability for a particular job. In specific, it entails taking notes or sometimes recording a person’s activity to understand better if they are suitable for the job position. An interview or an engagement with a particular candidate is also critical in unearthing whether they are qualified for a particular job position. Lastly, information for a specified role can be obtained through background checks. Specifically, background checks help identify critical information about a particular candidate (Shrm.org 2022a). This information includes criminal records, among many others, that are critical in deciding on the candidate.

AC 1.3 Different recruitment methods and when it is appropriate to use them.

There exist numerous types of recruitment methods that different organisations can utilise to attract the most suitable candidates. It is essential to understand that not every job has similar requirements. Due to that, employers must adopt different hiring tactics that match their environment as well as appeal to the candidates they are searching for (Brighthr.com 2020). The recruitment process can be categorised as either external or internal. External recruitment entails going outside the organisation to attract individuals you have never met. On the other hand, internal recruitment entails filling vacancies within a particular organisation from the existing workforce. The first recruitment methods are internal and external advertisements.

 Internal advertisement is vital when employers want to fill vacant positions quickly and cheaply as well as train new talents within the organisation. On the other hand, external recruitment is vital while attracting individuals with essential skill sets that are not found within the organisation (Shrm.org 2022b). Another critical recruitment method is the use of agencies. This method can be vital for organisations that require faster hiring and highly skilled candidates. Another critical recruitment method is electronic recruitment. Also known as online recruitment, the method utilises web-based technology for the various processes of attracting, recruiting, and potential onboarding candidates. The method is critical for organisations that want to save time, shorten the hiring process, and consider the broad scope of candidates (HR-ON 2019).

AC 1.4 Factors to consider when deciding on the content of copy used in recruitment methods.

Attracting top talents requires consideration of various materials and approaches. These materials and approaches are vital in persuading potential candidates to work for a particular organisation. Some of the key materials and approaches for luring top talents include;

An attractive job advertisement: In specific, an attractive job advertisement possesses essential details of the job vacancies for the potential applicants. The key objective of an attractive job environment is to convince potential applicants to apply for the available job positions. This advertisement can be shared on various channels such as asocial media platforms and newspapers.

An attractive reward package entails lists of rewards that a particular company offers for the employees’ responsibilities and job roles. An attractive reward package entails both monetary and non-monetary aspects to attract and retain top employees. Some of the key monetary rewards include paid leave.

A positive organisation image: Arguably, a positive organisation image entails customers’ perception of a particular organisation. In specific, a positive organisation image entails a combination of ideas and impressions that potential clients attribute to the organisation. Organisations can build a positive image through activities such as diversity hiring and effective learning and development policies.

AC 2.1 Different selection methods and when to use them

Employee selection can be defined as the process of acquiring and assessing information from job applicants in order to make a decision on selecting who to hire (Resourcesforemployers.com 2019). Crucial employee selection methods include;

Screening applications: According to Indeed.com (2021), screening applications is a multi-step approach used to find the most suitable candidates for specific job positions. The process entails screening the right candidates from the large talent pool. During this process, employers determine whether it is appropriate to orchestrate an official interview to learn more about a given candidate.

Developing shortlists: Shortlisting occurs after screening and can be defined as the process of identifying the right candidates from a particular applicant pool. During the process, applicants who meet the job position requirement are recommended to further assessments such as interviews.

Candidate pre-employment testing: Candidate pre-employment testing entails assessing whether a particular candidate can complete specific required tasks as well as gauging candidates’ reactions to more diverse situations. This facilitates a standardised method for evaluating and scoring a particular candidate’s skills against quantified results so as to compare with other applicants. Key pre-employment tests include knowledge, skills, and personality tests (Smartrescruiter.com 2015).

Employee interviews: An interview allows the selection panel to assess candidates’ strengths, skills attitudes, among many other aspects that are critical for a particular job position. There are many forms of interviews, such as face-to-face interviews, board interviews, and non-directive interviews, web-conferencing, among many others (Chand 2012).

AC 2.4 The selection records that need to be retained

According to SWhrconsulting.com (2019), one way of improving the human resource department is by embracing record keeping. The article adds that good record keeping can facilitate employee adjustments resulting in greater employee satisfaction and improved productivity. For instance, HR managers should store essential selection records such as interview notes and assessment scores. These records can be instrumental in making vital HR decisions, such as drafting learning and development policies. The records can also be vital for internal hiring as well as identifying employees’ skill gaps. Additionally, keeping section records can effectively monitor performance and productivity levels. This can be instrumental where HR managers are assessing steps for improving their organisation’s productivity. However, HR managers need to ensure that employees’ records are stored in a secure location and kept strictly confidential. Access to such records should only be limited to those with a legitimate need as dictated by law (Shrm.org 2021c).

AC 2.5 A letter of appointment

Letter of Appointment

Letter of Appointment

Date

Name

Address

Dear (Candidates Name)

We refer to your recent interview for the position mentioned above and are pleased to inform you that we have found you suitable to fill the position with our organisation effective from (Date of reporting). Below are our terms and conditions:

  • Remuneration: The salary offered for the above position
  • Probation Period: The probation period that an applicant needs to serve once they join the organisation
  • Working Hours: The time a new candidate is expected to be at work from Monday to Friday (Including lunch breaks and off days)
  • Leave Policy: The number of leaves an employee will be granted throughout the year. This entails sick leaves, maternal/paternal leaves, earned leaves and any other leave that an organisation offers.
  • Notice Period Clause: This refers to the timeframe by which an employee should notify an organisation if they desire to part ways with the company

(Employee’s Name)                         (Name of the individual providing the letter)

(Signature)                                          (Signature)

Letter of non-appointment

Letter of non-Appointment

Date

Name

Address

Dear (Candidate’s Name)

We would like to thank you for taking the time to meet with our team regarding the [the role title] role at [Organisation’s Name]. We were very honoured to learn more about your skills and achievements.

Unfortunately, I regret to tell you that our team did not appoint you for further consideration.

I regret to inform you that competition for jobs at (Company’s name) is always very tight and we often have to make very difficult choices. However, I assure you that we will continue keeping your resume for future consideration that suits your qualification and experience.

I will be happy and available to answer any questions regarding your application and interviews.

Thank you once again for your interest in (Organisation’s name). I also wish you the best of luck with your job search.

Regards

(Name of individual sending the letter)

Task One

Introduction

Decision making is critical for an organisations perfomance . There are is a wide range of  decision -making  approaches that could be used to identify possible solutions to organisational problems as well as specific issues relating to people practice.Evidence based practice is one of the concepts of decision making that has proven to give the desired outcome.It  is based on the concept that good decision making is attained through drawing on the best available evidence and critical thinking(CIPD, 2020). Evidence based practice is governed by several principles such as critical thinking. There are various theories that are linked to this approach and are of significance to decision making eg Utilitarianism ethical theory and Kant’s moral theory .

AC 1.2 Evaluate Micro-and Macro-Analysis Tools that can be used in Human Resource practice to Investigate an Organisation's Micro and Macro Environment and How those Discovered can be used to Diagnose Future Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities.

Internal and external factors affect every organisation. These aspects are all part of the broader organisational environment, and their effects on the firm should be evaluated. In people practice, various tools are employed, including strategy reviews, future state analyses, SWOT analyses, Ansoff matrix analyses, and Fishbone analyses.There are various ways to evaluate an organisation’s micro and macro environments, they include : Observations, interviews, job analysis, work sampling, and the use of questionnaires.

The micro-environment of an organisation refers to the primary factors or environment in which it operates. These elements or environments include suppliers, consumers, competitors, and stakeholders (Summer, 2019). These are internal factors that can have an effect on an organisation. Microenvironments can be evaluated using microanalysis methodologies such as Porter’s five forces analysis. On the other hand, the macro-environment refers to the broader forces that affect enterprises (Summer, 2019). Macro-environments are external elements that have an effect on an organisation’s activities and production but are beyond its control. Economic difficulties, political forces, technical breakthroughs, ecological and physical phenomena, and legal factors contribute to the macroenvironment. The PESTLE analysis tool is an illustration of a tool used to analyse macro-environmental factors.

The SWOT analysis tool assesses both internal and external issues affecting an organisation. SWOT analysis is a strategic planning technique that identifies a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (Summer, 2019). While strengths and weaknesses are concerned with the organisation’s internal workings, threats and opportunities are concerned with external issues that may affect the organisation. The SWOT analysis is a straightforward process that can be utilised by businesses entering new markets.

Michael Porter developed Porter’s five analysis method for assessing and evaluating a business’s competitive strength (Bruijl, 2018). The approach is based on five concepts and can be used to evaluate an organisation’s microenvironment. Porter identified five forces: negotiating power of buyers, the threat of entrance, bargaining power of suppliers, competition from rivals, and threats from replacements.

As the acronym implies, the PESTLE study examines political, economic, social, technical, legal, and environmental concerns (Downey, 2007). Political variables such as trade restrictions and policies and diplomatic difficulties are likely to affect an organisation’s performance. It is critical to note that organisations are governed by laws and regulations developed by trade unions and other regulating agencies in the UK. As a result, the human resources department is responsible for ensuring that the organisation adheres to all applicable requirements. Additionally, human resources should be kept up to date on regulatory developments that may affect an organisation.

The state of the economy is a significant external factor influencing any firm. Human resources should monitor changes in economic trends as a result of global financial instability. Organisations are directly affected by economic issues such as inflation, demand and supply, interest rates, and currency exchange rates (Friedman, 2013). Human resources should inform management of current economic trends in order to prepare them for future developments. The availability of a workforce can affect an organisation’s effectiveness on a social level. Human resources are accountable for developing a recruiting strategy that attracts the finest personnel to perform organisational functions. Technological factors include the influence of adopting new technology, which may need personnel reductions or recruitment. Human resources are responsible for advising management on essential modifications to ensure that technological advancements benefit the organisation and that the organisation retains a technologically savvy staff (Friedman, 2013).

Legal aspects include rules and regulations that affect how individuals conduct themselves. Human resource professionals should ensure that the organisation and its existing policies and procedures adhere to all applicable regulatory standards in the country (Friedman, 2013). The final ‘E’ in the PESTLE tool stands for environmental elements, which allude to a naturally occurring element that may affect how individuals behave. Global market forces are compelled to comply with sustainable development goals. The Human Resources department’s responsibility is to guarantee that the organisation complies with all applicable laws and incorporates environmental sustainability policies into daily operations.

AC 1.1 Assesses the notion of Evidence-Based Practice.

Evidence based practice is based on the concept that good decision making is attained through drawing on the best available evidence and critical thinking(CIPD, 2020).It entails use of verifiable basis to find solutions to dealing with people management The decisison is evaluated against available data in an organisation..Evidence based decisions tend to yield the desired outcome that impacts an organisations practise. The evidence-based approach makes use of critical thinking abilities and accessible evidence to make decisions about specific human resource concerns. According to Young (2020), sound decision-making requires critical thinking and a careful examination of the available data.

Additionally, evidence-based practice makes use of alternative decision-making models, such as the rational model. This paradigm entails the application of factual data and gradual procedures  to arrive at a decision (Uzonwanne, 2016). The summary of the rational decision-making model is shown in the diagram below.

Figure 1: Rational Decision-Making Model (Lumenlearning.com, 2019)

How evidence-based approaches can be used to aid in the development of sound judgments and decision-making

Evidence-based techniques are essential for aiding sound decision making since they reduce the likelihood of making erroneous judgments. In the lack of evidence, it is reasonable to predict unreasonable and unreliable managerial judgments. Managers are prone to bias and inaccuracy when making judgments based on their prior experiences or popular management methods, and this is especially true for senior executives. As stated in an article published by the Center for Evidence-Based Management (CEBM), all employees at all levels of the organisation must make decisions based on the best available evidence. According to Uzonwanne (2016), making decisions on the basis of evidence is deemed morally correct.

It is possible to utilise an evidence-based approach to enhance effective decision making and judgement by raising responsibility at the organisational level and by increasing transparency. The vast majority of managerial decisions have an impact on the overall performance of the organisation, whether in a positive or negative way. Evidence that has had reliability and validity checked has a positive impact on both individuals and organisations. It is through this technique that a manager can make the best decision feasible, which can be supported by organisational data, professional expertise, or findings from scientific study.

AC 1.4 At least two distinct ethical theories and views should be considered in decision making.

Utilitarianism is an ethical philosophy that focuses on the outcome in order to define what is right and wrong (Driver, 2009). It is one of the most frequently used persuasive tactics in the subject of normative ethics, and it is also one of the most effective. A choice that is most ethical is defined as one that results in the greatest amount of good, according to this viewpoint. It is possible to use this concept to inform and influence excellent decision making when the decision is in the best interests of the majority of employees or the organisation as a whole. As an example, the Covid 19 pandemic has impacted countless organisations, prompting the deployment of low-wage labour to compensate for the damage. In this situation, human resource professionals must choose between laying off employees and hiring new staff at a cheaper cost. Despite the fact that this is unethical, it will improve the long-term viability of organisations, particularly those that have been impacted by the pandemic. Justice, as well as any sense of individual rights, are excluded from this worldview.

Kantianism, often known as Kant’s moral theory, on the other hand, maintains that specific actions are prohibited regardless of the outcome. It is a deontological moral theory in which the focus is placed on an individual’s moral obligation rather than the outcome of a particular action or inaction (Chonko, 2012). Individuals’ ability to act morally in accordance with universal categorical imperatives is founded on the principle of moral responsibility. As a result of this concept, decisions should be made in light of an individual or a society’s moral and ethical duties. Because of this, the decision will be ethical (Chonko, 2012).

Influence of Theories in decision making.

A lot of what people think about when they make decisions has an impact on how they make decisions. In order to make good ethical decisions, you need to pay attention to what you do. HR should be in charge of most of an organization’s ethical responsibilities, even though the theories are broken up into three frameworks. Concomitantist: This is a type of ethical framework that is based on ethical theories. Duty: This is a type of ethical framework based on ethical theories. Virtue: Using the three frameworks to think about a situation before making a decision helps the person who makes the decision have a clearer picture of the matter at hand and come up with a sound decision that takes into account the ethical implications and the people who are involved (Bonde and Firenze, 2011). In the figure below, you can see a summary of different ethical theories, as well as their benefits and drawbacks.

Ethical Theories, Illustration 3 (Source: www.pagecentertraining.psu.edu, 2020)

AC 1.3. Discuss critical thinking principles and provide instances of how you apply them to your own and others’ ideas in order to facilitate objective and rational discourse.

The ability to think critically is a skill that helps people make good decisions and think about ideas, opinions, and arguments in a clear way (Howlett and Coburn, 2019). To make a decision, you have to look at people’s practise issues objectively and make a decision. Many critical thinking principles are based on rational, objective analysis of factual information and sceptical analysis, which is what the definition says. Being logically correct is what objective, rational thinking is all about. This principle lets you separate things that are true from things that aren’t. Walters says that rational, objective thinking is based on logic and other cognitive acts like imagination, creativity, and ideas.

In real life, people can use different critical thinking principles in different situations. When HR professionals use critical thinking to make decisions, they need to make sure they understand the issue and can tell the difference between facts and opinions(Howlett and Coburn, 2019). When making decisions based on evidence, you use the critical thinking principle of valid evidence to remove any bias.

AC 2.3 Describe various decision-making strategies that could be utilised to explore potential solutions to a particular challenge in human resource practice.

Human resource professionals are crucial in an organisation’s decision-making process. The HRM has several decision-making processes they can utilise to uncover probable answers to specific challenges depending on the functions of human resource practitioners. Human resource professionals employ various decision-making techniques, including best fit, future pacing, problem-outcome framing, action learning methodologies, and de Bono selection (Six Thinking hats). While a single procedure can be utilised to address various human resource concerns, different situations may necessitate a distinct approach to decision-making.

Edward De Bono invented De Bono (six thinking caps) in 1985 as a decision-making approach. Because it comprises a combined parallel process, it is an effective decision-making strategy for group debates and personal reflection. Each of the six hats represents one of the six distinct modes of thought. By mentally donning several thinking hats, individuals can approach problems differently and provide novel solutions—the six distinct mind frames described by Edwards are represented by various forms and colours of the hat. The white colour is symbolic of fact-based judgments. The colour red is associated with emotional decisions. Black denotes judging decisions, yellow denotes a favourable outlook or decisions made from a positive perspective, green denotes creative choices, and blue denotes reflective decisions (Mulder, 2019). Managers and human resource professionals can wear multiple hats during the decision-making process. The thinking caps are critical in assisting individuals in delving deeper into certain situations and making educated choices.

Framing challenges and outcomes is another decision-making technique that may be used to explore potential solutions to individual problems. Framing is a collection of interpretations on which various individuals rely in order to comprehend and respond to events. Different diagnoses and framings of issues might create complications when attempting to resolve them. Human resource practitioners must appropriately frame their organisation’s concerns to obtain the intended outcome. For instance, depending on how turnover is judged, it may be portrayed as an individual, human resources, or management issue.

AC 3.1 Evaluate organisations' financial and non-financial performance measurement methods.

In order to achieve success in business, proper performance management is required (Gifford, 2020). In order to ensure that employee performance is aligned with organisational goals, performance management attempts to monitor, maintain, and improve employee performance while also ensuring that it is improved. Organizations, on the other hand, can evaluate their own success in a variety of ways. Because it is a component of evidence-based people management techniques, performance monitoring is essential for decision-making.

Financial and non-financial measures can both be used to evaluate the performance of an organization’s operations. Indicators of financial performance include revenues, gross and net profits, cash flows, the rate of return on investment, and productivity, to name a few. Profitability ratios such as gross and net profit margins are used to determine a business’s profitability. Work in progress capital (WK) is a statistic that reflects the amount of readily available operating liquidity that is used to fund routine business operations. When a business creates money from its operations, it is measured by cash flow, which is a financial statistic in itself. A cash flow statement that includes an operating cash flow is commonly seen.

The following are examples of non-financial performance indicators: customer feedback, sector ratings, legal compliance, staff feedback, and other non-financial performance indicators. Because they have a direct impact on how long customers remain with a company, customer feedback and customer retention are key non-financial success measures. Client retention is just as crucial as customer attraction in terms of business success. When it comes to determining how many consumers are satisfied with a product or service, customer retention is critical, and feedback helps an organisation figure out how to improve. A company’s human capital can also be utilised to determine how well it is performing. Based on the results of the survey, an organisation can determine how well it is performing by comparing the number of talented employees it has to the number of unqualified employees it has.

The most important advantage of non-financial indicators is that they lead to stronger alignment with the long-term corporate strategy of the organisation. A large number of intangible assets are represented by non-monetary indicators, which provide sufficient information on the effectiveness of various operations (Ahrens and Chapman, 2007). Among the disadvantages of non-monetary solutions include the fact that they are time-consuming and costly to implement. In addition to being exact and easily monitorable, financial measures offer the advantage of being transparent. As a drawback, because they are primarily concerned with the short term, they are ineffective for long-term strategic planning.

References

Bonde, S. and Firenze, P. (2011) A Framework for Making Ethical Decisions | Science and Technology Studies. [online] Brown University. Available at: https://www.brown.edu/academics/science-and-technology-studies/framework-making-ethical-decisions .

Brugman, T. and Dijk, R. van (2020) Creating Value With Fact-Based HR. [online] AIHR Analytics. Available at: https://www.analyticsinhr.com/blog/creating-value-fact-based-hr/.

Bruijl, G.H.Th. (2018) The Relevance of Porter’s Five Forces in Today’s Innovative and Changing Business Environment. SSRN Electronic Journal, [online] 1(1). Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326026986_The_Relevance_of_Porter’s_Five_Forces_in_Today’s_Innovative_and_Changing_Business_Environment [Accessed 9 Apr. 2021].

Chonko, L. (2012). Ethical Theories. [online] . Available at: https://www.dsef.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/EthicalTheories.pdf.

CIPD (2020) People Data & Scientific Evidence. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/analytics#gref .

Downey, J. (2007) Strategic Analysis Tools Topic Gateway Series Strategic Analysis Tools Topic Gateway Series No. 34. [online] . Available at: https://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/cid_tg_strategic_analysis_tools_nov07.pdf.pdf .

Driver, J. (2009) The History of Utilitarianism. [online] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history/ .

Friedman, E. (2019) 4 External Factors That Affect Human Resource Management. [online] Workology. Available at: https://workology.com/4-external-factors-that-affect-human-resource-management/.

Gifford, J. (2020) Performance Management | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/people/performance/factsheet#gref .

Hayes, A. and Anderson, S. (2021) Cost Benefit Analysis | Better Evaluation. [online] Betterevaluation.org. Available at: https://www.betterevaluation.org/en/evaluation-options/CostBenefitAnalysis.

References

Howlett, W. and Coburn, T. (2019) Critical thinking | Podcast. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/podcasts/critical-thinking#gref.

Lumenlearning.com. (2019) Rational Decision Making vs. Other Types of Decision Making | Principles of Management. [online] Available at: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wmopen-principlesofmanagement/chapter/rational-decision-making-vs-other-types-of-decision-making/ .

Mulder, P. (2019) Six Thinking Hats by Edward De Bono, a decision making tool | ToolsHero. [online] ToolsHero. Available at: https://www.toolshero.com/decision-making/six-thinking-hats-de-bono/.

Payal Sondhi (2018) 5 Important Guidelines to Increase HR Values In Your Organization. [online] Entrepreneur. Available at: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/312696 .

Summer (2019) Understanding Of Micro And Macro Factors That Affect Your Business. [online] Mageplaza. Available at: https://www.mageplaza.com/blog/micro-and-macro-factors-affect-your-business.html.

Uzonwanne, F.C. (2016) Rational Model of Decision Making. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance, pp.1–6.

www.pagecentertraining.psu.edu. (2020). Ethical Theories. [online] Available at: https://www.pagecentertraining.psu.edu/public-relations-ethics/introduction-to-public-relations-ethics/lesson-1/ethical-theories/ .

Young, J. (2020) Evidence-based Practice for Effective Decision-Making | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/analytics/evidence-based-practice-factsheet#gref .

3CO01 Assignment Examples

Task One. Presentation Pack (1,000 words)

AC1.1 Application of an analysis tool (such as PESTLE) to examine the key external forces impacting or likely to impact an organisation’s activities

SLIDE 1

Both internal and external forces have an impact on the activities of an organisation. Internal forces are those that an organisation can influence, whereas external factors, such as the economy, are beyond its control. A company’s internal operations and its market relationships are influenced by external pressures. The PESTLE Analysis, which is described in greater detail below, is one of several methods used to analyze the external business environment. The acronym PESTLE refers to the Political, Economic, Social, Cultural, Technological, Legal, and Environmental factors that have an impact on businesses.

SLIDE 2

The political environment of a country has an effect on the political aspect of that state, such as the degree of political stability, the prevalence of corruption, customs, and trade regulations. When a nation is politically stable, businesses can work in a conducive environment and move freely without fear of conflict. Government tariffs impact the growth rate of a firm since they influence taxation levels. When the environment is corrupted, growth is poor since most funds are not utilised for their intended purpose, resulting in mismanagement of resources. In each business context, the level of market control influences the degree to which a firm may invest and it’s Return on Investment. For example, Nike, a manufacturer and retailer, is impacted by the constant evolution of manufacturing regulation.

SLIDE 3

The interest rate and the currency exchange rate are two examples of economic factors that have an effect on businesses and organisations. Businesses are less likely to borrow money when interest rates are prohibitively high, thus reducing their rate of expansion. In the event that investors’ rewards are delayed, this may deter them from making more investments. Any company’s foreign investment is influenced by the exchange rate since investors and shareholders would like to get the most out of their investments (PESTLE Analysis 2021). As a result, GDP growth might be either moderate or rapid.

SLIDE 4

Organisational performance is influenced by social factors, such as organizational culture and other social elements. Culture influences the mentalities, perceptions, and even works cultures of individuals. The company must evaluate the culture of the people since it affects how employees and customers approach their jobs and products, respectively. Market research supports a company in maintaining contact with reality. Nike has benefited from positive social trends. More individuals would engage in physical activity as a result of the trend toward healthy living, resulting in increased sales of athletic apparel.

SLIDE 5

Technological improvements are also changing the way businesses operate. New technologies are being embraced, and companies are being compelled to streamline their operation in order to compete and attract more customers. Remote working is also growing more common, with more firms enabling their employees to work from anywhere in order to increase their flexibility, performance, and effectiveness. Technology is also encountered in the course of customer service interactions. Nike has acknowledged that they make use of social media in order to promote awareness of their brand.

SLIDE 6

Technological improvements are also changing the way businesses operate. New technologies are being embraced, and companies are being compelled to streamline their operation in order to compete and attract more customers. Remote working is also growing more common, with more firms enabling their employees to work from anywhere in order to increase their flexibility, performance, and effectiveness. Technology is also encountered in the course of customer service interactions. Nike has acknowledged that they make use of social media in order to promote awareness of their brand.

SLIDE 6

The legal environment comprises the legal and judicial necessities of the country. In order to avoid unfavorable publicity and possible legal action, the organization must ensure that it complies with the legal system in each of its separate countries. In addition, the company has to make sure that all of its employees have the appropriate permits and licenses before they can begin working for the company. This is done to ensure that all employees have the essential skills and experience.

SLIDE 7

The way in which businesses function is affected by environmental aspects such as conservation and preservation because these aspects need them to give thought to how trash can be disposed of in a responsible and risk-free manner. This is done to prevent damage to the natural world and to ensure that our surrounds will continue to be habitable in the long run. Reducing, reusing, and recycling materials are the three methods that are utilized in environmental protection efforts more frequently than any others.

AC1.2 An explanation of an organisation’s business goals and why it is important for organisations to plan for how they will achieve these

SLIDE 8

The aims and ambitions of an organization are referred to as its organisational objectives, and these goals can be broken down into more specific objectives. The goal of the company is what keeps it moving forward and determines the kind of direction it will head in not only to become more competitive in the market but also to bring in and keep current customers as well as increase its overall market share. It is essential to make a plan and devise a strategy for how the organization’s objectives will be accomplished. Planning plays a significant role in ensuring that staff comprehends the nature of their responsibilities to ensure that risks are minimized or completely erased, responsibilities are assigned to skilled and talented individuals, the upscale of safety standards in addition to setting ,monitoring and step by step evaluation (Thobela, 2020).

Organisation Planning is of great significance in determining when to execute certain policies and how to ensure their full implementation to maximize on the rewards. Planning also permits control to be exercised where necessary to prevent misallocation of resources.

AC1.3 An explanation of an organisation’s products and/or services and main customers

SLIDE 9

John Good Shipping Ltd. is active in the shipping and logistics, storage and distribution, and business travel industries. The company offer sea freight, freight forwarding, LCL shipping, FCL container shipping, vehicle shipping, liner agency, port agency, roll-on/roll-off shipping, truck shipping, and project forwarding (John Good Group, 2022). It also provides road haulage, customs checks, business trips, air freight, marine insurance, supply chain management, and road freight services between Finland and Hull. The company provides its services to large blue-chip corporations in addition to small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in a variety of industries, including the automobile, foods, furniture, packaging, and pharmaceutical sectors. It also has representation in key ports all over the world, including India and the Middle East, so that it can deliver its services to customers there.

AC1.4 A short review of different technologies available to People Professionals and how these can be used to improve working practices and collaboration.

SLIDE 10

There are numerous technologies that can significantly aid the firm’s workers in their practice. Adapting and incorporating these innovations into the firm’s regular operations results in increased performance and output. Communication technologies, including the use of email messages for information exchange, record-keeping systems, such as the use of cloud-based systems to keep information, and learning latest technology, which enables employees to understand as much as possible in order to specialize in their professions, are examples of these technologies. (Nazarova, Nazarov and Bilokonenko, 2020).

References

Reference

Sotnikova, Y., Nazarova, G., Nazarov, N. and Bilokonenko, H., 2020. Digital technologies in HR management. Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development42(4), pp.527-535.

Nazarova, G.V., Nazarov, N.K. and Bilokonenko, H.V., 2020. Digital technologies in HR management.           

PESTLE Analysis 2021, “Political Factors Affecting Business” PESTLE Analysis Available on:https://pestleanalysis.com-political-factorsaffecting-business/

Thobela, M., 2020. Aligning Business Processes to the Strategic Goals of the Organisation. University of Johannesburg (South Africa).

Task Two – Self Reflective Journal

AC 2.4 At the beginning of your journal, summarise different ways a people practice professional can upgrade their knowledge and skills and stay up-to-date with developments in the people profession and wider world of work. This might be informal methods such as discussion and reading through to formal research and development methods (approximately 300 words)

To be effective in their roles, human resources professionals must be curious about what’s occurring both inside and outside their firms. Strategic decision-making is difficult if people professionals have no idea of what is going on within the company, how well the organisation competes in its sector, and how it’s all being affected from a global context (Thite, 2022). Therefore, possessing a passion for learning guarantees that people professionals are always at the cutting edge of knowledge and practice, allowing us to capitalize on opportunities, foster innovation, and find fulfilment and purpose.

Ways a People Practice Professional can upgrade their knowledge and skills;

Online platforms: To pursue a professional credential at this time may not be the best course of action. However other resources can be found on the internet. For instance, it is possible to learn many software, creative and commercial skills through video courses on LinkedIn Learning (Thite, 2022). Even if recognition and accreditation are important factors to consider while making a decision, there are many choices to choose from.

Pursuing a new qualification: There are several benefits to returning to class to progress a career.  Numerous professional organisations offer certifications geared toward employees. One can choose to study with CIM, CIPD, or ACCA (Dirani et al., 2020). Possessing a certification on your CV shows that one has attained a particular level in their field. It is quite beneficial especially when applying for a new position at work or simply changing professions. It is common for organizations to foot some of the bill for their employees.

Ensuring that my skills are up-to-date is among the best ways of keeping up with the ever-changing needs of my profession. Therefore, I often embark on a personal journey to determine the skills would need improvement before putting together an action plan. One of my action plans to upgrade my skills was to pursue CIPD courses where I began with Level 3 and hope to go all the way to Level 7.

AC 2.3 Examples of how you have recognised and accepted your own mistakes, and how you have recognised others’ mistakes whilst showing them empathy. (Approximately 300 words)

When I was still new at my position in my current organisation. I encountered a rather heated disagreement between two employees which escalated very quickly to becoming physical and eventually resulted in a medical emergency. As the HR I was tasked with finding the root cause of the problem before carrying out a conflict resolution procedure. However, before listening to both sides of the story to a make critical and informed decision I was quick to dismiss one employee giving him a 2 weeks unpaid suspension. The employee furious for the unfair dismissal threatened to sue the firm. Luckily the matter was handled quickly before it escalated to a lawsuit. I was mandated to carry out a serious investigation on the matter where I discovered the employee was only a victim of bullying because he recently received a promotion that the other employee was eyeing. I apologised and called off the suspension immediately. I learned a very important lessons on the purpose of conducting investigations and employing critical thinking prior to making serious decisions that will impact others.

One employee was consistently coming late to work and despite receiving several warning she would not change her habit. Since the warning has become many I decided to call her to the office to have a face-to-face conversation. Although she insisted that everything was okay I pursued further informing her that anything she brought forward would not be held against her. She opened up that her daughter was sick and her salary was not enough to cover both their basic needs and hospital bills for the company insurance did not cover everything. She had requested her line manager for extra shifts but her request was ignored hence she was forced to look for a night job hence why she is always late to work. Although it was her mistake I felt the organisation was partly to blame and hence went through the right channels to help her.

AC 2.5 Continue your journal with ongoing reflections on your performance and development. (Approximately 400 words)

My soft skills on communication and teamwork really needed a boost especially when I became a senior HR in my organisation. It is because unlike my previous role I would be handling more project and acting as a bridge not only between management and employees but management and the consumers as well. Upon commencing with my CIPD course I became aware of how to effectively employ communication and critical thinking to a situation. This was quite useful in saving a marketing issue that occurred at the firm almost costing us out top consumer and some investors. When the situation occurred, I was quick to work with the public relations team, the marketing team and to resolve the matter and keep our customers and investors. Although the matter caused the firm some money, we saved more than what we lost and that was a win.

In my previous organisation, I was not just responsible with people practises but I was also responsible with dealing with payrolls for the organisation did not have an accounting department. Since I was fresh from college I did not have a lot of skills and competencies as I had more theoretical than practical knowledge. Hence when presented with the payroll software to handle matters sprawled out of control as I failed to make correct calculations and ended up giving some employees more and others less compensation than they deserved. This resulted in a lot of commotion after the salary was released with people complaining having salary deductions while others got raises. I was so overwhelmed and had to receive a lot of help to get the issue fixed. The matter wasted a lot of time and money too. Afterwards I decided to enrol into an accounting class so that I could better fit into my rolls in the organisation.

This reflective journal has been both enlightening and encouraging. It has acted as a reminder as to why I need to put more effort in improving my skills and knowledge to offer optimal performance at work. On the other hand it has really encouraged me reminding me how far I have come in my career journey and the mistakes I used to make and how I moved passed them. At some point I felt useless and in the wrong path but frequent reflection and planning has helped me understand that all it takes is learning for growth to occur.

References

Thite, M. (2022). Digital human resource development: where are we? Where should we go and how do we go there?. Human Resource Development International25(1), 87-103.

Dirani, K. M., Abadi, M., Alizadeh, A., Barhate, B., Garza, R. C., Gunasekara, N., … & Majzun, Z. (2020). Leadership competencies and the essential role of human resource development in times of crisis: a response to Covid-19 pandemic. Human Resource Development International23(4), 380-394.

AC 1.1 Different stages of the employee lifecycle and the role of people professionals in the lifecycle.

Workforce Planning and Recruitment Pack

Introduction

Workforce planning can be defined as the process that a particular organisation utilises to analyse its workforce and determine frameworks that it must adapt to prepare for future staffing needs (Business Management Ideas 2019). On the other hand, a recruitment pack can be defined as information about a particular job and the type of personnel most desired to fill a particular position. Taking the time to plan and make work-related decisions is vital for the success of any organisation. Despite the size and or type of the company, workforce planning is a vital HR strategy that ensures your staff executes your business strategy effectively (CIPD 2018; Kapur 2022; Pahlanie et al. 2020). Workforce planning has emerged as a key HR subject in the contemporary global market. In specific, with a clear understanding of the existing workforce and future goals, HR can profile skills, experience, and knowledge vital for the company as well as its hiring and training process. To provide an in-depth understanding of the topic, the present paper highlights workforce planning and recruitment pack tools that can be vital for OcMara.

AC 2.1 Analysis of the impact of workforce planning in terms of forecasting demand for labour utilising both internal and external sources of supply.

Arguably, employee recruitment costs thousands. If a staff turns out to be the wrong fit, it costs the organisation even more. That is why it is vital to adopt effective frameworks to mitigate time and resource wastage (Kingdom.co.uk). Human resource supply forecasting is one of the most critical strategies for minimising such wastage. Human resource forecasting can be defined as the process of estimating available human resources followed by demand forecasting. Effective human resource forecasting entails an in-depth understanding of both the internal and external supply of human resources. Internal supply of human resources refers to labour that is available through employee transfers, promotions, organization’s former employees, and recall of the organisation’s former employees. On the other hand, the external supply of human resources refers to the availability of the labour force in a given market through new recruitment. Effective human resource managers understand which of the two frameworks to adopt while filling up job positions. Additionally, effective human resource managers understand factors impacting each of the above supply of human resources. For example, some of the key factors affecting the external supply of human resources include the literacy level of a nation, population rate, technological advancement, and compensation system.

AC 2.2 An evaluation of the effectiveness of promotion/demotion rates, employee turnover rates, and critical incident analysis techniques used to support workforce planning.

Moreover, strategic planning help to unlock more opportunities and success. That is the key advantage of workforce planning tools because they enable human resource managers to plan around the current workforce while at the same time looking ahead to the future of the organisation (Stewart and Brown 2019). There are numerous techniques that managers can use in workforce planning processes. One key strategy is reviewing the company’s business plan to make sure the organisation has ample staff to achieve its goals (George et al. 2019). Another strategy is focusing on future conditions and the environment based on the company’s repeating trends. Establishing current staff competencies is also a vital strategy to guide workforce planning. Identifying the need for promotion and demotion is also another key tool supporting workforce planning processes.

In specific, promotion and demotion can aid organisations in developing a competent workforce as well as boosting employee morale and confidence. On the other hand, measuring employee turnover also offers vital insight into some of the challenges the current team is experiencing. Evidently, there are numerous benefits associated with strategic workforce planning. One benefit is that strategic planning equips leaders with tools to identify talent issues. Another advantage is that it decreases hiring costs. However, there are also several disadvantages arising from supporting workforce planning. One disadvantage is that poor workforce planning can result in reactive hiring decisions. Secondly, the identification of talent gaps can result in existing employee burnout. Now shifting our attention to the OcMara organisation, effective workforce planning can aid the organisation’s management in identifying the workforce size necessary for the company to achieve sustainable operations.

AC 2.3 An explanation of how the appraisal can be used to identify who is interested in progression, managing contingency, and mitigating risks through OcMara developing their talent pools

An appraisal can be defined as the formal process of evaluating a particular employee’s performance by comparing actual performance against a particular organisation’s set of goals. In most instances, it is conducted through a questionnaire or using a one-to-one discussion between employees and their managers (IB Business Management HL, n.d.). An appraisal can aid the manager and employee identify training and development needs. Additionally, appraisals allow organisations to recognise and reward their employees. Appraisals can also be vital for contingency planning. In particular, an organisation can use appraisals to assess and prevent or modify the impact associated with certain unacceptable risks. OcMara can adopt employee appraisal to establish key areas where employees need to advance their knowledge. Additionally, performance appraisals can provide OcMara management with an opportunity to receive employee feedback, which can also be vital for the organisation’s success.

AC 2.4 Assessment of the use of social media and advertising to recruit employees. An assessment of interviews and job references as methods of selection.

A growing body of literature recognises the importance of social media and advertising to recruit employees in the modern market. Muduli et al. (2021) defines social media recruiting can as a framework that utilizes organisation branding and recruitment marketing elements to identify, connect, and attract qualified candidates on different online platforms. This HR practice, sometimes called social hiring or social recruiting, utilises social media platforms and other internet options such as blogs to identify potential job candidates. The increased adoption of this strategy has prompted numerous HR departments to develop fully formed social media recruitment strategies. One of the key strategies that a company can adopt to attract top talent on social media is showcasing company culture on different social media platforms. SAP organisation utilises this strategy to reach millions of potential hires across the globe. Another vital strategy utilised by WAP organisations is displaying employees’ personal strategies on different social media platforms. Another vital strategy is using social media to evaluate potential candidates.

Arguably, social media profiles provide vital information regarding a particular person. Recruiters can peep at potential candidates to learn about their personality, professionalism, and overall character (Comparably, 2021). Once the right candidates have been identified, the organisation can organise interviews to allow candidates to explain who they are and their capabilities to perform particular tasks. Additionally, organisations can conduct job references to learn more about their preferred candidates. In specific, job references entail engaging employees’ former employers or colleagues to assess the candidates’ potential to conduct particular tasks. OcMara organisation can adopt social media recruitment to identify potential candidates to lead its sustainability efforts.

AC 4.1 Assessment of how OcMara could introduce zero-hours and contractor contracts for the new staff it is hoping to recruit

A typical workforce in any organisation is made up of various employee-employer arrangements. Sometimes employees may be employed permanently. Permanent employees form the core of an organisation’s workforce. However, an organisation can have another team of self-employed contractors who work on one-off projects (CIPD 2021). Now shifting our attention to zero-hours contracts, CIPD (2021) define zero-hours contracts as mutual agreements between two parties in which one individual is required to perform work for the other with no set minimum timeline. As the name suggests, under a zero-hour contract, employers have no obligation on the employer to provide workers with any working hours. Organisations considering adopting this type of contract should also consider other available contracts that can deliver the same benefits. On the other hand, a contract can be defined as a document outlining the terms and conditions of the working arrangement between an organisation and an independent contractor. In most instances, zero-hour contracts are vital for companies with fluctuating operations. With this knowledge at hand, OcMara should not adopt zero-hour contracts because fluctuations in the energy sector are rare.

AC 4.2 A discussion between the differences between expressed and implied terms of contracts, and what is meant by custom and practice

Express and implied terms are the foundations of any employment contract and are basically the rights and duties of both employers and employees (NEU 2019). These terms are defined according to the UK’s Employment Rights Act of 1996. Express terms can be defined as rights and duties that are explicitly defined in a contract. This includes terms such as the job title, working hours, sick leave, notice pay, and pension schemes, among others. Express terms may exist in written or verbal form; however, UK law requires some clauses to be written down. However, sometimes the employers do not spell out every right and duty defined in the employment contract (implied). The key reason for this is because sometimes the right and duty may be quiet often. For example, mutual trust and confidence as well as the provision of a safe working environment. Effective express and implied terms are provided to employees before employment and should be in writing.

AC 4.3 An explanation of how role information and socialisation can be included in effective onboarding programmes. An explanation of the benefits of onboarding, in terms of appreciation of the organisational culture and norms and employee effectiveness

Role information is an onboarding framework in which professionals aid new employees in understanding key roles in a particular organisation. On the other hand, socialisation can be defined as a framework that aids employees in understanding and adopting organisational policies and culture. The two frameworks are vital for enabling employees to commit to the organisation and function effectively.

One key advantage of these frameworks is that they facilitate the successful integration of employees into a new organisation. Additionally, a successful onboarding process reduces induction crises. Lastly, the two frameworks allow employees to understand, appreciate, and adopt the organisational culture.

Conclusion

The present study defines workforce planning as the process an organisation utilises to analyse its workforce and determine frameworks that it must adapt to prepare for future staffing needs. On the other hand, a recruitment pack can be defined as information about a particular job and the type of personnel most desired to fill a particular position. From the present study, professionals must deeply analyse the labour market before making resourcing decisions to ensure they get the right people for particular job positions. Effective recruitment processes are vital for attracting qualified staff as well as retaining performing talents. The article has also provided vital information regarding employee retention and talent development. Lastly, the paper has highlighted the vital employee onboarding processes.

References

Business Management Ideas. 2019. Factors Affecting Human Resource Planning. [online] Available at: <https://www.businessmanagementideas.com/human-resource-planning/factors-affecting-human-resource-planning/19956> [Accessed 31 May 2022].

CIPD  2021. Zero Hours Contract Law | Guides | CIPD. [online] Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/emp-law/terms-conditions/zero-hours-guide#gref> [Accessed 31 May 2022].

CIPD 2018. Workforce planning practice. [online] Available at: cipd.co.uk/Images/workforce-planning-guide_tcm18-42735.pdf [Accessed: 13 August 2021] 

Comparably. 2021. 6 Keys to Successfully Leverage Social Media to Attract Talent. [online] Available at: <https://www.comparably.com/news/using-paid-and-organic-social-media-content-to-recruit-and-attract-talent/> [Accessed 31 May 2022].

George, B., Walker, R.M. and Monster, J., 2019. Does strategic planning improve organizational performance? A meta‐analysis. Public Administration Review79(6), pp.810-819.

IB Business Management HL. n.d.  [online] Available at: <https://guide.fariaedu.com/business-management-hl/unit-2-human-resource-management/functions-and-evolution-of-human-resource-management/appraisal-ao2#:~:text=Appraisal%20is%20the%20formal%20process,employees%20and%20their%20line%20managers.> [Accessed 31 May 2022].

Kapur, R., 2022. Workforce planning as a way of Leading to Development of Human Resources. International Journal of Information, Business and Management14(1), pp.149-158.

Kingdom.co.uk. n.d. What is workforce planning and what are the benefits?. [online] Available at: <https://www.kingdom.co.uk/blog/what-is-workforce-planning-and-what-are-the-benefits> [Accessed 31 May 2022].

Muduli, A., Trivedi, J. and Pingle, S., 2021. Social media recruitment and culture: an empirical study. International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management22(3), pp.364-382.

NEU. 2019. Express and implied contract terms. [online] Available at: <https://neu.org.uk/advice/express-and-implied-contract-terms> [Accessed 31 May 2022].

Pahlanie, R., Ghazali, A. and Daryanto, W.M., 2020. WORKFORCE PLANNING TO SUPPORT COMPANY TARGET ACHIEVEMENT. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law22(1), pp.88-96.

Stewart, G.L. and Brown, K.G., 2019. Human resource management. John Wiley & Sons.

Introduction

Workforce planning can be defined as the process that a particular organisation utilises to analyse its workforce and determine frameworks that it must adapt to prepare for future staffing needs (Business Management Ideas 2019). On the other hand, a recruitment pack can be defined as information about a particular job and the type of personnel most desired to fill a particular position. Taking the time to plan and make work-related decisions is vital for the success of any organisation. Despite the size and or type of the company, workforce planning is a vital HR strategy that ensures your staff executes your business strategy effectively (CIPD 2018; Kapur 2022; Pahlanie et al. 2020). Workforce planning has emerged as a key HR subject in the contemporary global market. In specific, with a clear understanding of the existing workforce and future goals, HR can profile skills, experience, and knowledge vital for the company as well as its hiring and training process. To provide an in-depth understanding of the topic, the present paper highlights workforce planning and recruitment pack tools that can be vital for OcMara.

5CO01: Organisational Performance and Culture in Practice

AC 1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Two Types of Organisation Structures

Functional Organisational Structure

The functional organisational structure focuses on appropriating people roles and duties in struct accordance to their skills, abilities and specialities. The employees are then grouped into units all aligned to defined functions. Managerial officers heading the divisional segments units then report to the top-most management. The wider purpose behind functional structures is to allow a high sense of organisational focus on critically crucial business units. A facility with an independent research and development (R&D) unit will have staffers in the department only focusing on R&D without appropriating efforts elsewhere. This factor can allow the organisation to effectively assess its research trajectory and value that investments on R&D bring to the facility. Top management have preference for the reporting of units independently with an aim of evaluating strong points and assessing weak areas. It is also a system of retaining specialists within a single output line as a mechanism of amplifying efficiency.

Advantages

The functional organizational structure carries its set of merits as evidenced by various success stories from the corporate world and increased scholarly attention on its relevance in today’s organisational landscape. The grouping of specialist staffers within a single line of functions highly enhances workplace efficiency. A communication intern reporting to a communication officer who is supervised by a departmental communication manager paves way for the realization of people fully indulged in their speciality. The absence of role duplication erases professional confusion and promotes a clear reporting line (Bromley, 2018). Functional structures have demonstrated their capacity to save unnecessary expenses and reduce organisational vote heads. Decrease in duplicated departments and interlinked reporting formats minimizes offices, a factor which works in creating manageable organisational expenses. People domiciled within functional areas that optimally utilize their professional strengths exhibit high-motivation levels directly leading to high productivity.

Disadvantages

The retention of people in static functional units can metamorphosize into professional detention paving way for the display of boredom. The repetition of tasks can diminish motivation and produce low-energy employees. An erratic handling of promotions in scenarios that have juniors rising above long-staying employees demoralizes workers and may encourage withdrawals and staff exits (Bromley, 2018). Employee turnovers form expensive realities for organisations on the basis of exit packages and new recruitment initiatives. Functional units can also detach employees from overall organisational strategies, goals and values creating employee dissonance. This factor can have employees whose work and motivation does not align with the wider objectives, an issue that can cost organisations. Territorial conflicts can arise especially in the case of non-performance by a single unit.

Matrix Organisational Structure

The matrix organisational structure accesses its image through collaboration among units, integration of employees within units and the presence of shared resource planning. Employees within a matrix organisational structure remain held within several chains of command and a single employee can report to more than one senior. The overall purpose behind this structure is to facilitate injection of employee dynamism and foster team-work.

Advantages

A matrix organisational structure advances substantive merits to institutions. The team-based project approach has facilitated integration of skills in a strategy that promotes workplace efficiency. A single project can absorb effective public communicators, reliable marketing professionals and charismatic leaders. The collaboration advantage has strongly enhanced resource planning, saving companies expenses and activating a possibly high return on investment (ROI) ratio (Turi and Sorooshian, 2019). Beyond creating dynamism through interdepartmental communication, the framework lays the foundation for problem detection across units. Senior executives can access the opportunity to diagnose challenges that occur within individual departments. Employees manage to internalize new range of skills and valuable experience from cross-unit interactions.

Disadvantages

Lack of managerial clarity rises as a fundamental disadvantage in matrix organisation structures. A unit manager may fail to differentiate their roles from those of project leaders paving way for the rise of confusions, and thus delays. Unclear roles is an issue extending to employees and the overall delay can hinder effective project implantation and amplify costs associated with single organisational tasks (Turi and Sorooshian, 2019). The function integration has, in some instances, led to a clogged decision-making process, a result that further complicates work systems. It is also possible to have matrix environments failing to accurately measure employee output.

AC 1.2 Connections Between Organisational Strategy, Products, Services and Customers

Organisational strategy functions as the operational engine of an entity and directs the form of actions on products, services and customers. Clarified values, a well-defined mission and an ambitious vision carry the potential of determining organisational trajectory on the three critically important elements. An organisation keen on delivering a future-proof product can immensely invest in a strong product design framework. Organisations have used the elements of concept designs, rolling out of prototypes and testing markets prior to releasing products. This tactic creates a collective mindset of preparation and facilitates a strong understanding of the market. Apple Inc has consistently employed the strategy of testing its iPhone device brand prior to actual market releases (Yan, 2016). It is this organizational strategy that has realized consistent success for the company. An organisation that understands how its products serves the customers and the market dynamics behind the product releases stands near sustainable success.

Various operating components can guide how an organisation can align its overall strategy to meet customer needs. At the apex of this framework is the need to deliver quality services and products. Mercedes, as a corporation, has consistently sold itself as an automaker keen on quality vehicles. An organisation may also carry the preference of activating a favourable pricing model to capture defined consumer demographics. Chinese phone companies deliver affordably priced devices to Asian and African markets managing to carve out a strong niche on the basis of their pricing models. Creating extremely amazing customer experience frameworks has raised the performance portfolio of organisations around the world. A 2022 report by Forbes on companies focusing on exemplary customer services indicated that Starbucks rose as the best restaurant brand in 2022 due to its dynamic customer service approach (Morgan, 2022). The value of customer service operations amplifying brand values cuts across all sectors around the world.

Every organization’s operating model should be in structured in a manner that allows its to keep up with an evolving strategy. Nokia can qualify as one of the commercial institutions around the world that failed to have its operating model answer to evolving consumer needs (Atmar, Becdach, Kleinman and Rieckhoff, 2019). The organizational pace in evaluating overall strategy should remain in clear consideration of surrounding internal factors for the purpose of eliminating confusion and creating disconnection.

AC 1.4: The Scale of Technology within Organisations and its Impact on Work

Organisations have immensely benefited from the technological revolution even as some corporate actors point out to dangers present when technology appears to take off in a more accelerated speed much more than organisations can bear. The Chartered Institute for Personnel and Development (CIPD) has consistently tracked the interaction of employees with technology placing the impact on organisations under focus (CIPD, 2020). One of the key takeaways is that technology has risen to the position of a partner to employees around the world. A workstation that required handwritten memo can now circulate memos through such tools as email, team-based digital platforms i.e Slack, TEAMS and WhatsApp groups. Web conferencing capacities now enable remote-based working processes. Facilities have access to technology that can accelerate the creation of more efficient applications and programs clearing the way for accelerated performance and a high value for money. CIPD’s 2020 report on employee experience around technology presents that a bulk of current people roles will be automated in a decade or so (CIPD, 2020). The automation implies a huge reduction on errors and a rise in reliability and delivery.

Employees have reported substantive changes in work execution after absorbing technology in their duties. CIPD reports that 32% of employees have reported changes in the use of technologies over the last one year (CIPD, 2020). About 505 of the employees surveyed by CIPD indicated the need to update their skills and match the outputs advanced by technology (CIPD, 2020). Organisations should interpret such findings to imply increased responsibility around facilitating more engaging workplaces for employees. For example, facilities should expose communication workers to consistent tool use training capable of empowering the employees into useful use of technologies. A member of staff in the communication department will not appreciate the value of web conference tools if they cannot understand mechanisms of using them.

Organisational stakeholders across various industries do promote the observation that too much workplace automation could lead to massive job losses for ‘conventional’ employees. The bulk of stakeholders promoting this position are unions, governments and employees. However, it is notable that automation amplifies efficiency and paves way of the rise of bigger and more vibrant institutions. Strengthening the institutions leads to widened opportunities. It is in the interest of organizations through their collective lobbies and associations to impress on employees that competitive industries imply increased openings. Further, technology keeps on expanding the entrepreneurial space. Start-ups offering technology support services are rising by the minute and the present extremely new workplace positions. More attention on technology-facilitated collaboration enhances organisational intersection and facilitates the insight necessary to illustrate new directions. Organisations appropriating resources towards showing employees how technology can qualify as a workplace partner are playing a right part in taking employees to the next level.

AC 2.1 Theory/Model of Organisational Culture and Theory/Model of Human Behaviour

Meritocracy (Model of Organisational Culture)

Meritocracy places an open platform for which employees can freely share their opinions but carries the prier of having leaders identify the most appropriate opinion for analysis and implementation. In a meritocracy, executives only work with the best forms of outputs and may not facilitate democracy. The framework gives room for employees to forge their path to professional growth and development only if they do so while putting their best foot forward. An organisation may opt to assess identified key performance indicators (KPIs) on individual employees and use results to elect on who deserves recognition. This culture has been hailed as a future-proof concept in ensuring that organisations only work with the best. The basis behind a successful meritocracy culture may lie within an organisation’s ability to create a passionate working environment. When leaders clearly define overall goals, facilitate substantive resources and construct an enjoyable working environment, employees tend to strongly promote meritocracy.

Taylor’s Scientific Change Management Theory (Theory of Human Behavior)

Frederick Winslow Taylor promoted a conceptual argument stating that raw encouragement to productivity did not, necessarily, inspire motivation in employees. Instead, the theorist urged executive managers to consider breaking down roles into simpler tasks as a way of enhancing higher accomplishments. In the modern world, breakdown the tasks into everyday deliverables can work in making sure that employees take the small steps to individual but professional success. The absorption of Taylor’s system of thought can influence the change of behavior in facilities with an aim of convincing employees of the easy executive nature of tasks. A sales’ officer can have their annual target broken down into shorter spans of time. The periodical achievement of the targets eventually informs the long-term success paving way of the realization of collective goals. The impression that a task is easier when broken down amplifies an employee’s sense of energy and may increase their motivation levels.

AC 2.3 Different Approaches to Managing Change

An organisation keen managing change has various options in its disposal all developed through scholarly construction, analysis of industrial reports and case studies on change issues facing institutions. The CIPD 2020 Report on the future trends within the people profession, the institute urges organisations to consider investing in future-proof skills that can enhance productivity in a rapidly changing operational environment (CIPD, 2020). Communication skills, for example, are now necessary in all professions and globalization calls for the training of employees to adopt technology-supported communication abilities. The report proceeds to encourage horizontal scanning within internal and external environments as a strategy of detecting if new shifts exist or are expected within the workplace. Such shifts could manifest by way of increased benefits, more flexible working arrangements or an absolute reconfiguration of roles.

AC 2.4 Models for how Change is Experienced

The Kubler-Ross Five Stage model posits that organizations seeking change or placed in a situation in which change is inevitable may have to experience five stages for a complete organisational overhaul. The model references psychological concepts to observe that an organisation in need of change may initially exist in a state of self-denial (Amin and Mohamad, 2017). A substantive example to highlight this aspect is the reality of institutions that faced financial crisis from fraud by top executives. It is observed that these facilities begin at the point of completely denying such realities. Consistent prodding for the truth by stakeholders, members of the public and authorities can drive the organisation into the second stage of anger. Thirdly, and based on the rise of potentially damning evidence, the organisation may get into the bargaining stage possibly trying to manage the situation. Should the situation persist, the organisation may enter into a state of non-action carrying all the elements of depression. It is this stage that paves way for the final phase of acceptance. During acceptance, it is expected that the organisation will make changes inclusive of disciplinary action on culprits. The Kubler-Ross model does present the ways in which most organizations experience chances especially during crises.

AC 2.5 Importance of Wellbeing and Factors that Impact Wellbeing

Wellbeing at the workplace works around assuring the good physical, psychological and social wellbeing of employees. According to a 2022 CIPD Report on wellbeing at work, wellbeing implies creating contentment at work, a factor that strongly favours both employees and employers (CIPD, 2022). Contented employees do not get distracted leading to consistent productivity. Healthy employees facilitate active engagement and remain in complete charge of their duties. In environments that prioritize wellbeing, employees develop high-level resilience that works in allowing them to address challenging duties (CIPD, 2022). The motivation amplified by good health and wellbeing creates energy and promotes a sense of alertness within workplaces. The wellbeing contributes to lower absenteeism arising from medical leaves and off-days, a result that enhances production and professional delivery in organisations. Organizations that diminish the importance of wellness at the workplace often run erratic working cycles and a distressed employee population.

Existent industrial information and scholarly literature suggests that intentional workplace behaviours can impact employee wellbeing. Awarding employees a sense of work autonomy can save workers from micro-management by their seniors. Staff working under bothersome supervisors tend to disengage from their jobs and the loss of focus can strongly dilute productivity. The promotion of an inclusionary culture creates a dependable support system that promotes close working relationships among employees. The presence of compassion in the work environment creates grateful employees who, in turn, willingly focus on delivering on organisational objectives. A physical sense of comfort and safety eliminates rise of physical challenges and erase chance of physical absence. A company can enhance this element by providing comfortable working tools such as ergonomic seating chairs and investing in a clear safety culture.

AC 3.2 Connection of People Practice and With Other Areas of an Organisation

The human resource framework carries immense potential of influencing how people practice can interact with other areas of an organisation. Clear communication of shared values and overall goals aligns everyone into a singular direction. Every employee works carrying the knowledge that they are supporting a larger objective and a bigger strategy. Focused employees amplify productivity and positively contribute towards the realization of an identified common agenda. The interaction of employees with one another at the workplace heavily determines the people approach. If a given department has a worker engaging cordially, it is expected that the cohesive mannerisms will diffuse to other units and support workplace integration. The presence of a supportive unit convinces the creation of an organization-wide culture of support and creates strong teams across all departments. The HR office can assist managerial teams identify relevant skills for specific duties (CIPD, 2021). A quality assurance officer possessing exceptional communication skills can easily take up communication duties in a different project.

People advancing their work assignments while carrying a high sense of clarity may allow the company to decide most appropriate roles to advance them. It is possible for an organization to temporarily fill a vacant position with an inhouse employees as the company reorganizes its conventional structure (CIPD, 2021). For example, the resignation of a senior vice president in charge of sales can facilitate the deployment of a vice president in charge of corporate communications to that slot. This framework suggests that exceptional employees always operate as assets to organizations even in the presence of varied situations. Human resources promoting the thinking of employees as assets greatly assist the organization in assessing its strength and addressing issues within the entire organisation. Guidance on performance measurement allows facilities to interpret variations in output should roles change.

AC 3.3 Processes for Consulting and Engaging with Internal Customers to Understand their Needs

Employees form an organisation’s database of internal customers and an institution’s treatment of them constructs the entire human resource output. At the foundation of active engagement with internal customers is the need to invest in clarified communication systems. Many facilities fail at the point of timely information sharing especially at the point of feedback. Active feedback illustrates engaged working environments and amplifies the trust that employees have with the organisation. An employee seeking clarification on a promotion issue can feel disengaged should the HR office or top management fail to activate strong feedback channels. Going forward, the affected employee can qualify the institution as disinterested in him/her leading to sharp declines in motivation levels. The active communication structure should be replicated across all collaborative assignments and common obligations.

Investment in employee training rises as a central theme in enhancing close consultation and engagement with internal customers. An environment that consistently places efforts on employee development creates time to understand their needs through training. The training sessions form opportunities of professional interactions and can have employees open share on the challenges they face at the workplace. The organization can construct journey maps to analyse employee trajectory. This process allows top executives a chance of understanding the process undertaken by internal customers for the entire time they have worked for the company. The journey map can point out to instances when output consistency changed or highlight instances of exceptional performance. Results from the mapping exercise can create room for changes in consulting and engagement approaches with the employees. The entire foundation behind consulting and engaging with internal customers is to create a workplace that is visibly sensitive to employees’ needs.

References

Amin, Y. and Mohamad, R., 2017. Knowledge management system model for learning organisations. International Journal of Learning and Change, [online] 9(4), p.290. Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319046529_Knowledge_Management_System_Model_for_Learning_Organizations>.

Atmar, H., Becdach, C., Kleinman, S. and Rieckhoff, K., 2019. Bridging the gap between a company’s strategy and operating model. [online] McKinsey & Company. Available at: <https://www.mckinsey.com/capabilities/people-and-organizational-performance/our-insights/bridging-the-gap-between-a-companys-strategy-and-operating-model> [Accessed 19 September 2022].

Bromley, M., 2018. Organisational structures. SecEd, [online] 2018(2), pp.4-4. Available at: <https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/sece.2018.2.4>.

CIPD, 2020. People Profession 2030: A collective view of future trends. [ebook] London: CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/people-profession-2030-report-compressed_tcm18-86095.pdf> [Accessed 12 September 2022].

CIPD, 2020. Workplace Technology: The Employee Experience. [ebook] London: CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/workplace-technology-2_tcm18-80853.pdf> [Accessed 15 September 2022].

CIPD, 2021. Strategic Human Resource Management | Factsheets | CIPD. [online] CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/hr/strategic-hrm-factsheet#gref> [Accessed 20 September 2022].

CIPD, 2022. Wellbeing at Work | Factsheets | CIPD. [online] CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/culture/well-being/factsheet#gref> [Accessed 16 September 2022].

Hasan, A., 2019. People Matters – Interstitial Site — People Matters. [online] Peoplemattersglobal.com. Available at: <https://www.peoplemattersglobal.com/news/diversity/google-staff-faces-retaliation-over-hr-complaints-23029> [Accessed 17 September 2022].

Hass, R. and Denmark, A., 2020. More pain than gain: How the US-China trade war hurt America. [online] Brookings. Available at: <https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2020/08/07/more-pain-than-gain-how-the-us-china-trade-war-hurt-america/> [Accessed 13 September 2022].

Morgan, B., 2022. The Top 100 Most Customer-Centric Companies Of 2022. [online] Forbes. Available at: <https://www.forbes.com/sites/blakemorgan/2022/05/01/the-top-100-most-customer-centric-companies-of-2022/?sh=11ca26c2b387> [Accessed 18 September 2022].

Terziev, V. and Klimuk, V., 2021. Factors and mechanisms affecting innovation development of industrial business organizations: cooperative resource model. SSRN Electronic Journal, [online] Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353829666_FACTORS_AND_MECHANISMS_AFFECTING_INNOVATION_DEVELOPMENT_OF_INDUSTRIAL_BUSINESS_ORGANIZATIONS_COOPERATIVE_RESOURCE_MODEL>.

Turi, J. and Sorooshian, S., 2019. The impact of organisational structure on organisational learning. Middle East J. of Management, [online] 6(2), p.204. Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335490658_The_impact_of_organisational_structure_on_organisational_learning#:~:text=Study%20shows%20that%20organic%20structural,learning%20are%20centralisation%20and%20indoctrination.>.

Yan, J., 2016. Analysis Of Apple Equipment In The Product Design Thinking. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, [online] 63. Available at: <https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/amahs-16/25865806> [Accessed 16 September 2022].

AC 1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Two Types of Organisation Structures

Functional Organisational Structure

The functional organisational structure focuses on appropriating people roles and duties in struct accordance to their skills, abilities and specialities. The employees are then grouped into units all aligned to defined functions. Managerial officers heading the divisional segments units then report to the top-most management. The wider purpose behind functional structures is to allow a high sense of organisational focus on critically crucial business units. A facility with an independent research and development (R&D) unit will have staffers in the department only focusing on R&D without appropriating efforts elsewhere. This factor can allow the organisation to effectively assess its research trajectory and value that investments on R&D bring to the facility. Top management have preference for the reporting of units independently with an aim of evaluating strong points and assessing weak areas. It is also a system of retaining specialists within a single output line as a mechanism of amplifying efficiency.

Advantages

The functional organizational structure carries its set of merits as evidenced by various success stories from the corporate world and increased scholarly attention on its relevance in today’s organisational landscape. The grouping of specialist staffers within a single line of functions highly enhances workplace efficiency. A communication intern reporting to a communication officer who is supervised by a departmental communication manager paves way for the realization of people fully indulged in their speciality. The absence of role duplication erases professional confusion and promotes a clear reporting line (Bromley, 2018). Functional structures have demonstrated their capacity to save unnecessary expenses and reduce organisational vote heads. Decrease in duplicated departments and interlinked reporting formats minimizes offices, a factor which works in creating manageable organisational expenses. People domiciled within functional areas that optimally utilize their professional strengths exhibit high-motivation levels directly leading to high productivity.

Disadvantages

The retention of people in static functional units can metamorphosize into professional detention paving way for the display of boredom. The repetition of tasks can diminish motivation and produce low-energy employees. An erratic handling of promotions in scenarios that have juniors rising above long-staying employees demoralizes workers and may encourage withdrawals and staff exits (Bromley, 2018). Employee turnovers form expensive realities for organisations on the basis of exit packages and new recruitment initiatives. Functional units can also detach employees from overall organisational strategies, goals and values creating employee dissonance. This factor can have employees whose work and motivation does not align with the wider objectives, an issue that can cost organisations. Territorial conflicts can arise especially in the case of non-performance by a single unit.

Matrix Organisational Structure

The matrix organisational structure accesses its image through collaboration among units, integration of employees within units and the presence of shared resource planning. Employees within a matrix organisational structure remain held within several chains of command and a single employee can report to more than one senior. The overall purpose behind this structure is to facilitate injection of employee dynamism and foster team-work.

Advantages

A matrix organisational structure advances substantive merits to institutions. The team-based project approach has facilitated integration of skills in a strategy that promotes workplace efficiency. A single project can absorb effective public communicators, reliable marketing professionals and charismatic leaders. The collaboration advantage has strongly enhanced resource planning, saving companies expenses and activating a possibly high return on investment (ROI) ratio (Turi and Sorooshian, 2019). Beyond creating dynamism through interdepartmental communication, the framework lays the foundation for problem detection across units. Senior executives can access the opportunity to diagnose challenges that occur within individual departments. Employees manage to internalize new range of skills and valuable experience from cross-unit interactions.

Disadvantages

Lack of managerial clarity rises as a fundamental disadvantage in matrix organisation structures. A unit manager may fail to differentiate their roles from those of project leaders paving way for the rise of confusions, and thus delays. Unclear roles is an issue extending to employees and the overall delay can hinder effective project implantation and amplify costs associated with single organisational tasks (Turi and Sorooshian, 2019). The function integration has, in some instances, led to a clogged decision-making process, a result that further complicates work systems. It is also possible to have matrix environments failing to accurately measure employee output.

AC 2.4 At the beginning of your journal, summarise different ways a people practice professional can upgrade their knowledge and skills and stay up-to-date with developments in the people profession and wider world of work. This might be informal methods such as discussion and reading through to formal research and development methods (approximately 300 words)

To be effective in their roles, human resources professionals must be curious about what’s occurring both inside and outside their firms. Strategic decision-making is difficult if people professionals have no idea of what is going on within the company, how well the organisation competes in its sector, and how it’s all being affected from a global context (Thite, 2022). Therefore, possessing a passion for learning guarantees that people professionals are always at the cutting edge of knowledge and practice, allowing us to capitalize on opportunities, foster innovation, and find fulfilment and purpose.

Ways a People Practice Professional can upgrade their knowledge and skills;

Online platforms: To pursue a professional credential at this time may not be the best course of action. However other resources can be found on the internet. For instance, it is possible to learn many software, creative and commercial skills through video courses on LinkedIn Learning (Thite, 2022). Even if recognition and accreditation are important factors to consider while making a decision, there are many choices to choose from.

Pursuing a new qualification: There are several benefits to returning to class to progress a career.  Numerous professional organisations offer certifications geared toward employees. One can choose to study with CIM, CIPD, or ACCA (Dirani et al., 2020). Possessing a certification on your CV shows that one has attained a particular level in their field. It is quite beneficial especially when applying for a new position at work or simply changing professions. It is common for organizations to foot some of the bill for their employees.

Ensuring that my skills are up-to-date is among the best ways of keeping up with the ever-changing needs of my profession. Therefore, I often embark on a personal journey to determine the skills would need improvement before putting together an action plan. One of my action plans to upgrade my skills was to pursue CIPD courses where I began with Level 3 and hope to go all the way to Level 7.

Task One. Presentation Pack (1,000 words)

AC1.1 Application of an analysis tool (such as PESTLE) to examine the key external forces impacting or likely to impact an organisation’s activities

SLIDE 1

Both internal and external forces have an impact on the activities of an organisation. Internal forces are those that an organisation can influence, whereas external factors, such as the economy, are beyond its control. A company’s internal operations and its market relationships are influenced by external pressures. The PESTLE Analysis, which is described in greater detail below, is one of several methods used to analyze the external business environment. The acronym PESTLE refers to the Political, Economic, Social, Cultural, Technological, Legal, and Environmental factors that have an impact on businesses.

SLIDE 2

The political environment of a country has an effect on the political aspect of that state, such as the degree of political stability, the prevalence of corruption, customs, and trade regulations. When a nation is politically stable, businesses can work in a conducive environment and move freely without fear of conflict. Government tariffs impact the growth rate of a firm since they influence taxation levels. When the environment is corrupted, growth is poor since most funds are not utilised for their intended purpose, resulting in mismanagement of resources. In each business context, the level of market control influences the degree to which a firm may invest and it’s Return on Investment. For example, Nike, a manufacturer and retailer, is impacted by the constant evolution of manufacturing regulation.

SLIDE 3

The interest rate and the currency exchange rate are two examples of economic factors that have an effect on businesses and organisations. Businesses are less likely to borrow money when interest rates are prohibitively high, thus reducing their rate of expansion. In the event that investors’ rewards are delayed, this may deter them from making more investments. Any company’s foreign investment is influenced by the exchange rate since investors and shareholders would like to get the most out of their investments (PESTLE Analysis 2021). As a result, GDP growth might be either moderate or rapid.

SLIDE 4

Organisational performance is influenced by social factors, such as organizational culture and other social elements. Culture influences the mentalities, perceptions, and even works cultures of individuals. The company must evaluate the culture of the people since it affects how employees and customers approach their jobs and products, respectively. Market research supports a company in maintaining contact with reality. Nike has benefited from positive social trends. More individuals would engage in physical activity as a result of the trend toward healthy living, resulting in increased sales of athletic apparel.

SLIDE 5

Technological improvements are also changing the way businesses operate. New technologies are being embraced, and companies are being compelled to streamline their operation in order to compete and attract more customers. Remote working is also growing more common, with more firms enabling their employees to work from anywhere in order to increase their flexibility, performance, and effectiveness. Technology is also encountered in the course of customer service interactions. Nike has acknowledged that they make use of social media in order to promote awareness of their brand.

SLIDE 6

Technological improvements are also changing the way businesses operate. New technologies are being embraced, and companies are being compelled to streamline their operation in order to compete and attract more customers. Remote working is also growing more common, with more firms enabling their employees to work from anywhere in order to increase their flexibility, performance, and effectiveness. Technology is also encountered in the course of customer service interactions. Nike has acknowledged that they make use of social media in order to promote awareness of their brand.

SLIDE 6

The legal environment comprises the legal and judicial necessities of the country. In order to avoid unfavorable publicity and possible legal action, the organization must ensure that it complies with the legal system in each of its separate countries. In addition, the company has to make sure that all of its employees have the appropriate permits and licenses before they can begin working for the company. This is done to ensure that all employees have the essential skills and experience.

SLIDE 7

The way in which businesses function is affected by environmental aspects such as conservation and preservation because these aspects need them to give thought to how trash can be disposed of in a responsible and risk-free manner. This is done to prevent damage to the natural world and to ensure that our surrounds will continue to be habitable in the long run. Reducing, reusing, and recycling materials are the three methods that are utilized in environmental protection efforts more frequently than any others.

AC1.2 An explanation of an organisation’s business goals and why it is important for organisations to plan for how they will achieve these

SLIDE 8

The aims and ambitions of an organization are referred to as its organisational objectives, and these goals can be broken down into more specific objectives. The goal of the company is what keeps it moving forward and determines the kind of direction it will head in not only to become more competitive in the market but also to bring in and keep current customers as well as increase its overall market share. It is essential to make a plan and devise a strategy for how the organization’s objectives will be accomplished. Planning plays a significant role in ensuring that staff comprehends the nature of their responsibilities to ensure that risks are minimized or completely erased, responsibilities are assigned to skilled and talented individuals, the upscale of safety standards in addition to setting ,monitoring and step by step evaluation (Thobela, 2020).

Organisation Planning is of great significance in determining when to execute certain policies and how to ensure their full implementation to maximize on the rewards. Planning also permits control to be exercised where necessary to prevent misallocation of resources.

AC1.3 An explanation of an organisation’s products and/or services and main customers

SLIDE 9

John Good Shipping Ltd. is active in the shipping and logistics, storage and distribution, and business travel industries. The company offer sea freight, freight forwarding, LCL shipping, FCL container shipping, vehicle shipping, liner agency, port agency, roll-on/roll-off shipping, truck shipping, and project forwarding (John Good Group, 2022). It also provides road haulage, customs checks, business trips, air freight, marine insurance, supply chain management, and road freight services between Finland and Hull. The company provides its services to large blue-chip corporations in addition to small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in a variety of industries, including the automobile, foods, furniture, packaging, and pharmaceutical sectors. It also has representation in key ports all over the world, including India and the Middle East, so that it can deliver its services to customers there.

AC1.4 A short review of different technologies available to People Professionals and how these can be used to improve working practices and collaboration.

SLIDE 10

There are numerous technologies that can significantly aid the firm’s workers in their practice. Adapting and incorporating these innovations into the firm’s regular operations results in increased performance and output. Communication technologies, including the use of email messages for information exchange, record-keeping systems, such as the use of cloud-based systems to keep information, and learning latest technology, which enables employees to understand as much as possible in order to specialize in their professions, are examples of these technologies. (Nazarova, Nazarov and Bilokonenko, 2020).

References

Reference

Sotnikova, Y., Nazarova, G., Nazarov, N. and Bilokonenko, H., 2020. Digital technologies in HR management. Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development42(4), pp.527-535.

Nazarova, G.V., Nazarov, N.K. and Bilokonenko, H.V., 2020. Digital technologies in HR management.           

PESTLE Analysis 2021, “Political Factors Affecting Business” PESTLE Analysis Available on:https://pestleanalysis.com-political-factorsaffecting-business/

Thobela, M., 2020. Aligning Business Processes to the Strategic Goals of the Organisation. University of Johannesburg (South Africa).

AC1.1 Application of an analysis tool (such as PESTLE) to examine the key external forces impacting or likely to impact an organisation’s activities

SLIDE 1

Both internal and external forces have an impact on the activities of an organisation. Internal forces are those that an organisation can influence, whereas external factors, such as the economy, are beyond its control. A company’s internal operations and its market relationships are influenced by external pressures. The PESTLE Analysis, which is described in greater detail below, is one of several methods used to analyze the external business environment. The acronym PESTLE refers to the Political, Economic, Social, Cultural, Technological, Legal, and Environmental factors that have an impact on businesses.

SLIDE 2

The political environment of a country has an effect on the political aspect of that state, such as the degree of political stability, the prevalence of corruption, customs, and trade regulations. When a nation is politically stable, businesses can work in a conducive environment and move freely without fear of conflict. Government tariffs impact the growth rate of a firm since they influence taxation levels. When the environment is corrupted, growth is poor since most funds are not utilised for their intended purpose, resulting in mismanagement of resources. In each business context, the level of market control influences the degree to which a firm may invest and it’s Return on Investment. For example, Nike, a manufacturer and retailer, is impacted by the constant evolution of manufacturing regulation.

SLIDE 3

The interest rate and the currency exchange rate are two examples of economic factors that have an effect on businesses and organisations. Businesses are less likely to borrow money when interest rates are prohibitively high, thus reducing their rate of expansion. In the event that investors’ rewards are delayed, this may deter them from making more investments. Any company’s foreign investment is influenced by the exchange rate since investors and shareholders would like to get the most out of their investments (PESTLE Analysis 2021). As a result, GDP growth might be either moderate or rapid.

SLIDE 4

Organisational performance is influenced by social factors, such as organizational culture and other social elements. Culture influences the mentalities, perceptions, and even works cultures of individuals. The company must evaluate the culture of the people since it affects how employees and customers approach their jobs and products, respectively. Market research supports a company in maintaining contact with reality. Nike has benefited from positive social trends. More individuals would engage in physical activity as a result of the trend toward healthy living, resulting in increased sales of athletic apparel.

SLIDE 5

Technological improvements are also changing the way businesses operate. New technologies are being embraced, and companies are being compelled to streamline their operation in order to compete and attract more customers. Remote working is also growing more common, with more firms enabling their employees to work from anywhere in order to increase their flexibility, performance, and effectiveness. Technology is also encountered in the course of customer service interactions. Nike has acknowledged that they make use of social media in order to promote awareness of their brand.

SLIDE 6

Technological improvements are also changing the way businesses operate. New technologies are being embraced, and companies are being compelled to streamline their operation in order to compete and attract more customers. Remote working is also growing more common, with more firms enabling their employees to work from anywhere in order to increase their flexibility, performance, and effectiveness. Technology is also encountered in the course of customer service interactions. Nike has acknowledged that they make use of social media in order to promote awareness of their brand.

SLIDE 6

The legal environment comprises the legal and judicial necessities of the country. In order to avoid unfavorable publicity and possible legal action, the organization must ensure that it complies with the legal system in each of its separate countries. In addition, the company has to make sure that all of its employees have the appropriate permits and licenses before they can begin working for the company. This is done to ensure that all employees have the essential skills and experience.

SLIDE 7

The way in which businesses function is affected by environmental aspects such as conservation and preservation because these aspects need them to give thought to how trash can be disposed of in a responsible and risk-free manner. This is done to prevent damage to the natural world and to ensure that our surrounds will continue to be habitable in the long run. Reducing, reusing, and recycling materials are the three methods that are utilized in environmental protection efforts more frequently than any others.

Explain the principles of legislation relating to dismissal in respect of capability and misconduct issues

According to UK laws, every employee has the right to a fair and just dismissal. There are five possible reasons for dismissal under the 1996 Employment Rights Act: capability, conduct, redundancy, a legal basis, or any other substantial reason (Employment law| CIPD, n.d). However, while the aforementioned are causes for dismissal, to guarantee fair treatment of the process and in case of misconduct or capability difficulties, the employer must manage the matters per the ACAS Code of Practice on disciplinary and grievance procedures (Employment law| CIPD, n.d). Failure to comply with the stated guidelines could result in a claim of wrongful dismissal from the employee even if the reason for termination were valid. Some of the principles of legislation relevant to dismissal include;

Fairness: Dismissal must be fair and reasonable, even if it falls under one of the five possible reasons for dismissal listed by the employer.

Investigation: If not handled correctly, dismissal is a critical issue that could lead to litigation. Because of this, managers must perform investigations before deciding that dismissal is the best option (Employment law| CIPD, n.d.).

Following a fair procedure: To ensure a fair dismissal, employers must abide by the Acas code of practice. If employers don’t, they could end up in front of an employment tribunal, where they would have to compensate the employee.

Section 1

AC 1.1 A review of emerging developments to inform approaches to employee voice and engagement

The past few decades have seen increased recognition of the significance of employee voice to organisational growth. According to (The future of employee voice | CIPD, 2022) employee voice goes beyond giving employees a platform to speak their minds as it also involves offering feedback on the obtained insights, guaranteeing transparency, and encouraging employee participation. Another organisational aspect gaining popularity is employee engagement, which has improved employee satisfaction and trust resulting in a cohesive and productive workforce. While employee engagement continues to gain prominence, employee voice remains unexplored in several organisations, with most of them maintaining traditional systems such as annual employee surveys (The future of employee voice | CIPD, 2022). Furthermore, evidence has shown that many organisations in the UK are becoming less transparent as years go by. The study carried out by The Centre for People, Work, and Organisational Practice at Nottingham Trent University in partnership with the CIPD and YouGov showed that employee voice was less in bigger organisations than in smaller organisations (The future of employee voice | CIPD, 2022). The research also indicated that many employees opt out of trade unions, with only 17% of the UK workforce being active participants in trade unions. It also stated that only 49 % of employees use team meetings to speak out their views (Hodgkinson, 2018). However, while traditional methods such as trade unions are becoming less popular, technology is revolutionizing the workplace as social media platforms become popular employee voice tools. With the development of social media, employees’ ability to express their opinions has matured. These developments have increased employee expectations of how they should be heard in the workplace. Social media has pioneered ways of eliciting employee voices that have shifted the organisation’s communication patterns from one-way or two-way to multi-directional.

AC 1.2 Differentiate between employee involvement and employee participation and how it builds relationships

Employee involvement and employee participation are critical to an organisation’s productivity. These two are often confused when it comes to their definitions, with many assuming that they are similar to one another. However, it should be noted that while both are important and aid in the growth of an organisation, the two concepts are distinct. Employee involvement refers to how employers allow their employees to participate in the day-to-day operations of their company (Hodgikinson, 2018). Individual employees can contribute to the smooth running of the company. On the other hand, employee participation entails how employees get involved in the decision-making process, often through representation. Both employee participation and employee involvement are beneficial to the organisation since they touch on the core aspect of the company, that is, the employees. In a company with active employee involvement ad participation, productivity rises because of happier workers and better employee relations. The organisation benefits from a low turnover rate, thus retaining its top people and preserving continuity due to high employee satisfaction.   Customer satisfaction and the organisation’s ability to respond promptly to market shifts are also guaranteed

AC 1.3 Assess a range of employee voice tools and approaches to drive employee engagement.

An organisation with a compelling voice strategy is in a win-win situation. When businesses incorporate employee voices into their business strategy, they stand to gain from innovation, growth, and productivity. Employees also feel valued and report higher rates of job satisfaction, thus recording improvement (Joyce et al., 2020). Many tools and strategies are incorporated in an effective employee voice strategy, including workplace meetings, communication initiatives, surveys and polls, employee feedback, email communication, and social functions.

Surveys and Polls

Surveys are practical to an organisation as they provide insight into employee engagement and lifecycle and offer immediate feedback on issues that affect the organisation. These surveys include census surveys, regular pulse feedback, new joiner surveys, and 360 feedback. The main advantage of using surveys is that they offer honest and immediate feedback that helps managers understand the organisation’s issues and make informed decision-making (Joyce et al., 2020).  The main disadvantage is that it is impossible to determine the accuracy of a survey unless it is repeated severally hence ensuring that the results reflect the reality.

Communication initiative

They include channels where employees can voice their issues directly, such as workplace meetings, listening groups, and social functions. These tools are valuable in getting immediate feedback on employee issues through survey polls (Joyce et al., 2020). The process incorporates upward, and downward communications as employees communicate directly with management. Solutions can also be easily be assessed, thus preventing the escalation of issues.

Online platforms

By offering online discussions and creating platforms for posting suggestions and sharing ideas in detail, online platforms have become valuable for employee voice. They also provide organisational network analysis and social media review data. These platforms offer employees the freedom to voice their opinions and receive feedback. Employers can interact with employees, engage in one-on-one meetings, award rewards and bonuses and offer transparency on performance. These platforms include 15five and Reflektive. Social media platforms are beneficial in providing better data insights and flexibility. However, their main disadvantage is that they call for increased employee guidelines for usage to eliminate employee distractions.

AC 1.4 Critically evaluate the interrelationships between employee voice and organisational performance.

Organisational performance and employee voice are closely linked. Many studies state that employee voice is a substantial contributor to low productivity in many organisations. Employees may opt to keep silent if management does not listen to their concerns and suggestions. This can be detrimental to the organisation. If employees are afraid of losing their jobs once they voice their concerns, they are more likely to keep information that could be valuable to the company. To get the most out of your employees, managers need to pay attention to their voices and how they feel about their work environment. Furthermore, it has been shown that giving employees a voice reduces employee burnout while increasing their dedication. Making solutions are seeing tremendous expansion, which may be placing a significant amount of stress on the staff and resulting in burnout. As a result, if they are not adequately advised or supported, their loyalty to the organisation could be severely damaged. Because employee voice enables employees to influence their employers’ decisions, it fosters employee participation (Jha et al., 2019). It’s a great way to boost productivity and morale, which benefits the company’s workforce and upper management. It enhances the overall quality and experience of the workplace by serving as an effective incentive for employees. As a result of their increased sense of being heard, valued, and treated fairly, employees are more likely to stay with the company (Jha et al., 2019). Employees who don’t have a voice in the workplace are more likely to leave, be absent, and have a lower level of productivity and performance.

AC 1.5 Explain the concept of better working lives and how this can be designed.

Even though there are designated work hours, many employees find that their work obligations tend to extend into the evenings and weekends. Research by the CIPD found that compared to their European counterparts, employees in the UK work longer hours, with many working five extra hours per week than they would prefer (Suff, 2021).   Nearly two-thirds of study subjects in the research said they would like to see their work hours reduced to have a more fulfilling work life. However, this is impossible because one out of every two employees says that their jobs make it difficult to unwind outside of work hours. Work-life balance is crucial for each employee as it increases productivity and creativity (Kelliher et al., 2019). As the organisation continues to expand, employees at Makita may become demoralized due to burnout brought on by a lack of healthy work-life balance, thus resulting in lower productivity. It is the company’s responsibility and, more specifically, of the Human Resources department to come up with formal and informal arrangements that help employees maintain better working lives. Flexi-time is the most common arrangement, allowing employees to start and finish their work at their convenience.

On the other hand, managers must pay more attention to output than hours worked (Kelliher et al., 2019). As a result, employees will be able to work from home and set their hours as long as they meet the company’s quality standards. An hour or two of unpaid time off per week for dealing with personal or family matters can be arranged through informal arrangements. For high productivity, it is essential to incorporate these arrangements into the organisational culture, which shows employees that the organisation values their health and well-being.

AC 1.1 A review of emerging developments to inform approaches to employee voice and engagement

The past few decades have seen increased recognition of the significance of employee voice to organisational growth. According to (The future of employee voice | CIPD, 2022) employee voice goes beyond giving employees a platform to speak their minds as it also involves offering feedback on the obtained insights, guaranteeing transparency, and encouraging employee participation. Another organisational aspect gaining popularity is employee engagement, which has improved employee satisfaction and trust resulting in a cohesive and productive workforce. While employee engagement continues to gain prominence, employee voice remains unexplored in several organisations, with most of them maintaining traditional systems such as annual employee surveys (The future of employee voice | CIPD, 2022). Furthermore, evidence has shown that many organisations in the UK are becoming less transparent as years go by. The study carried out by The Centre for People, Work, and Organisational Practice at Nottingham Trent University in partnership with the CIPD and YouGov showed that employee voice was less in bigger organisations than in smaller organisations (The future of employee voice | CIPD, 2022). The research also indicated that many employees opt out of trade unions, with only 17% of the UK workforce being active participants in trade unions. It also stated that only 49 % of employees use team meetings to speak out their views (Hodgkinson, 2018). However, while traditional methods such as trade unions are becoming less popular, technology is revolutionizing the workplace as social media platforms become popular employee voice tools. With the development of social media, employees’ ability to express their opinions has matured. These developments have increased employee expectations of how they should be heard in the workplace. Social media has pioneered ways of eliciting employee voices that have shifted the organisation’s communication patterns from one-way or two-way to multi-directional.

You are asked to critically evaluate management development activity in you organisation. What are its main strengths and weaknesses? What ONE proposal would you make to improve its effectiveness? Justify your answer.

Introduction

Organisations are increasingly realizing that investing in management development is necessary to remain competitive in a dynamic work setting. Over the past decade, organisations and their management have witnessed significant changes in the workplace, including rapid technical advancements, more internationalization, shifting organizational structures, and significant shifts in career dynamics. When it comes to management development initiatives, organizations have a number of options ranging from informal to formal, as well as from organization-directed to those that are self-directed.

Critically evaluation of the Work Rotation Program

Our organisation has been acknowledged as one of the firms in the United Kingdom that has implemented work rotation as a training program. This strategy was established as a result of the organization’s risk assessment, which revealed a lack of sufficient talent to grow and dominate the industry while also achieving world-class productivity levels. As a result, they implemented a legally mandated job rotation policy to empower employees to further their careers and explore their diverse interests.

Using a rotation policy has proven to be effective as it brings every member of the work force together on the same platform, which include board members and senior management, who have also invested a lot of time in strategic approach, machine intelligence, and machine learning programs, where they have picked up new skills such as language and algorithms programming, and most importantly, have gained an understanding of how these skills can be developed internally. This policy illustrates the employers’ value for their employees as it acknowledges the direct correlation between the employees’ well-being and success to the organization’s competitive edge. The policy has served a crucial role in the development of a comprehensive wellness strategy that fosters a self-leadership approach in which employees are empowered to take control of their own well-being with the assistance of peers, line managers, and senior executives.

By taking charge of their own state of well-being, Management also encourage their employees to maximize their potential that would enable them to flourish, stay relevant and be productive in career and personal lifestyle. This job rotation strategy has proven to be effective in assisting the organization in identifying individual KSAs (knowledge, skills and attitude). Additionally, this strategy has resulted in employees increasing their knowledge, abilities, and qualifications through supplemental training and general education. These developments have enhanced performance in their roles, hence boosting job security (Dwianto et al., 2020).

Strengths of the Work Rotation Program

The job rotation does help in increasing the employees’ motivation. The introduction of the Flexible Work Arrangement (FWA) within the organisation have create flexible conditions that will enable the firm to balance their objectives of achieving a highly productive, harmonious work environment that is responsive to the changing professional and personal needs of today’s workforce.

Moreover, by exposing employees to a range of job specialties and roles, the policy promotes employee engagement while decreasing attrition. This enhances their level of satisfaction while decreasing boredom from having to execute the same duty on a daily basis. As a result, the competencies and aligned with requirements where resources are directed where and when they are required. For example, it is used to examine employees’ potential and appoints them to a position where their abilities, competencies, and qualities are utilized to the greatest extent possible in the organization.

Additionally, work rotation enables individuals to explore their career interests. Throughout the integration of these rotation policy it is evident that; employees are unaware of their desired careers of choice until they are assigned to a specific position. For an example, job rotation or exposure to other activities will allow them to determine what they are strong at and what they prefer doing, as well as the opportunity to discover underlying interests and capabilities. In addition, it also aids in inspiring employees to cope with new obstacles. When employees are introduced to new occupations or allocated new duties, they will undoubtedly deal with new challenges successfully and be motivated to perform better, hence culturing a spirit of healthy competition within the organisation. In general, this strategy has helped to boost employee engagement by assuring them of job security despite current rapid technological advancement (Lee et al, 2020)

Weaknesses of Work Rotation Program

The job rotation program is often costly and time-consuming. Moving an employee to a new position requires a learning curve that depletes the organization’s resources and time. Most probably, the employees will need a level of training before they can commence their new position. Additionally, some employees may be uncomfortable with the rotation program as employees currently perfect with their job feel they may mess up with their progress. Furthermore, the rotation program does not guarantee an increase in employee engagement. The majority of employees may be excellent in their daily job routines but are uncomfortable with learning new skills (Shiffer et al., 2018).

A proposal to improve the work rotation program

Depending on the business and the time spent in each job, rotation programs will vary in size and formality. Our company should consider developing a job rotation program and invest in a systematic job rotation program. The program is critical because it increases the potential for improved product quality by allowing employees to explore various career options and reducing stagnation and boredom in the workplace. The organization should develop clear lines for who will be qualifies for the program and whether workers will be bounded to certain job classifications or will be able to work in any position. Workers in non-exempt positions, and those in managerial and professional positions, should rotate jobs. Furthermore, it is critical to have an explicit knowledge of which abilities will be developed by putting an employee through the job-rotation process and involving the employee and supervisors in designing specific work rotations so that mutual expectations are apparent. Understanding why a work rotation program is being implemented in the first place is necessary for its successful execution. On the other hand, work rotation program can increase workload and reduce productivity for the rotating worker and other workers who must pick up the slack.

Reference

Shiffer, D., Minonzio, M., Dipaola, F., Bertola, M., Zamuner, A.R., Dalla Vecchia, L.A., Solbiati, M., Costantino, G., Furlan, R. and Barbic, F., 2018. Effects of clockwise and counterclockwise job shift work rotation on sleep and work-life balance on hospital nurses. International journal of environmental research and public health15(9), p.2038.

Lee, E.A.L., Black, M.H., Falkmer, M., Tan, T., Sheehy, L., Bölte, S. and Girdler, S., 2020. “We can see a bright future”: Parents’ perceptions of the outcomes of participating in a strengths-based program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders50(9), pp.3179-3194.

Dwianto, A.S., Madhakomala, M.P. and Hamidah, M., 2020, October. The Influence of Work Experience on Job Rotation (Case Study on Post Office Manager in Regional IV Jakarta). In Brawijaya International Conference on Multidisciplinary Sciences and Technology (BICMST 2020) (pp. 37-40). Atlantis Press.

3CO03 - Core behaviours for people professionals

Task One

AC 1.1 Explain what is meant by ‘ethical principles’ and ‘professional values’ and how these might inform how people approach their work.

Ethical principles encompass general judgments that justify certain ethical assessments and prescriptions of human behaviours and actions. They act as a moral compass by which individuals make decisions and live their lives. Ethical principles guide one to do the right thing. Ethical principles are either reinforced externally or ingrained within a person to assist them in acting accordingly and distinguishing between wrong and right (Aradhya, 2020). They are independent of an individual’s subjective viewpoints and form parts of normative theories that defend moral judgments. Professional values refer to the core ethics and values that one adopts and demonstrates in their areas of work (CIPD, 2022). They are guiding principles and beliefs that impact an individual’s work behaviour. These traits encompass actions, skills, and behaviours that numerous employers search for and wish for in employees. They are generally an extension of one’s personal values like helpfulness, accountability, trust, honesty, and generosity. Although professional values might change with time and around diverse life circumstances, one’s core values and beliefs remain the same. Ethical principles inform how people approach their work by helping them apply professional values and principles and make responsible choices regarding their work.

Additionally, these principles enable them to consider the implications and purpose of their decisions, practices, and actions for all shareholders. It also makes people raise concerns about organisational practices and policies that are inconsistent with legislation or values. On the other hand, with professional values, one approaches work with particular levels of care and professionalism and holds themselves accountable for all that they do (Editorial Team, 2021). Furthermore, it determines an individual’s actions and mindset needed for professional fulfilment and success. Also, one approaches work in a genuine and trustworthy way, thus enabling one to build positive work relations with superiors and colleagues. For instance, treating others well is a professional value one may use in the workplace.

AC 1.2 Identify a piece of legislation and a code of practice that support ethical and professional practice, with examples of how a professional would conform to these.

The Equality Act 2010 is a piece of legislation that supports ethical and professional practice. This act legally protects individuals from discrimination both at their workplaces and in wider society. This equality act replaced earlier anti-discrimination legislation and simplified the law. It made the law easier to comprehend and comply with by eliminating inconsistencies (Bob, 2019). Additionally, it critically strengthens protection in certain situations by helping tackle inequality and discrimination. Professionals conform to the Equality Act of 2010 by promoting diversity and equality in the workplace. Treating workers fairly irrespective of their race, gender, age, and other characteristics is central to the Equality Act 2010 (Bob, 2019). Besides, it offers a platform for employees who have been subject to discrimination to raise concerns with the management and be guaranteed that the matter will be treated with the utmost seriousness.

People professionals should provide a supportive, inclusive, and safe environment for employees to further their knowledge regardless of their background or identity. Under the Equality Act, professionals must make reasonable adjustments to ensure that a disabled worker fulfils their responsibilities in the best way possible. For instance, professionals can physically adapt their workplaces to minimise the effects of their disability. The CIPD’s code of professional conduct supports ethical and professional practice. Professionals must be qualified members of the CIPD. While being a CIPD member is not essential to practising as a people professional, it plays a crucial role in improving and setting standards for people professionals, particularly in regards to ethical principles and professional values (CIPD, 2022). Since CIPD is the professional body in charge of people who practise professions, it has set standards that people must satisfy to become members and must observe once they gain CIPD’s membership. These behaviours and standards are explained and set in the professional code of conduct. This code encompasses four principles, namely: stewardship, integrity, and ethical standards; professional behaviour and competence; and representation of the profession (CIPD, 2022). Hence, professionals must demonstrate high integrity standards in their work to create a transparent and trustworthy workplace culture.

AC 2.1 Describe how a professional would demonstrate respectful and inclusive working in relation to:

  • Contributing views and opinions

A respectful and inclusive workplace allows both employees and employers to feel safe, accepted, and heard. Every employee should feel supported and welcome regardless of diverse characteristics such as age, culture, sexuality, gender, etc. Professionals demonstrate inclusive and respectful working when they seek feedback. This is critical since it ensures every employee is involved in and informed about important organisational matters. Besides, asking employees for their opinions and input makes them feel valued and heard. Seeking feedback from professionals in relation to contributing opinions and views makes the staff feel included and free to raise their concerns and opinions without fear of victimisation or alienation (Boatman, 2022). They are assured that their views will be embraced.

  • Clarifying problems or issues

A people professional can demonstrate respectful and inclusive working in relation to clarifying problems or issues by including every employee in discussions, meetings, and celebrations. Having employees in meetings or discussions promotes a collaborative working environment and produces new ideas for organisational problems (Boatman, 2022). Additionally, it encourages employees to identify solutions promptly and better solutions. Thus, if a professional is having a discussion or meeting to clarify problems, they should include every employee needed. Practicing transparency is another way professionals can demonstrate a respectful and inclusive working environment. Being transparent shows employees that they can be trusted with information and are willing to work towards finding solutions together.

  • Working effectively as part of a team

A professional can demonstrate respectful and inclusive working in relation to working effectively as part of a team by listening to all team members’ opinions and views. Listening carefully to what other team members have to say and allowing them adequate time to communicate their ideas is vital (Boatman, 2022). It promotes a happier, healthier, respectful, and inclusive environment. For instance, a people professional should ensure all team members have had an opportunity to speak first when they feel eager to share their thoughts. This encourages equal participation, which increases collaboration within a team. Additionally, recognising the achievements and strengths of individual team members promotes a respectful and inclusive working environment. It is essential for professionals to recognise the accomplishments and strengths of their teams. This can be done by praising them for their dedication, successes, or skills to demonstrate one’s appreciation and respect.

AC 2.2 Summarize different ways a people professional would stay up-to-date with people practise and world of work issues and developments, highlighting two in particular that you have personally found effective.

It is critical for people professionals to stay on top of people’s practise developments and world of work matters. This gives one a competitive edge and helps them acquire experience and recognise prospects for advancement (CIPD, 2019). Attending professional events is one of the ways a people professional can stay up-to-date with people practise and world of work issues and developments. These events provide valuable opportunities for one to learn about advancement and growth in people’s practises. Professional groups and companies often host workshops or seminars that give one direct insight and access to experts in their field (Partners, 2022). Hence, these events serve as constructive networking opportunities for individuals to brainstorm and exchange ideas with co-workers who can offer fresh perspective and insight. Undertaking a professional development course is the second way a professional can stay on top of practise and world developments. These courses help one learn new things, thus expanding one’s professional knowledge and skill set (Partners, 2022).

Part-time and online professional development courses permit one to continue working while they study. Hence, one can explore numerous courses associated with their industry and study them to build skills that can be applied to an extensive variety of roles. Having an industry buddy or mentor is one of the ways I have personally found effective in staying up-to-date with people’s practises. Enlisting the assistance of an industry buddy has given me an opportunity to acquire new information outside of the office. This situation encourages conversational flow with the chance to make queries without fear of judgement. This has broadened my perspective and helped me build up my industry knowledge. Social media is another way I have personally found effective to stay on top of people’s practises and world developments. I absorb the latest opinions and information by following leaders and industry experts on channels like LinkedIn, Twitter, and Instagram. LinkedIn, in particular, adds great insights to my conversations since it is a great means for interacting with industry leaders, colleagues, and trade groups.

Task 2

Appendix 1 – CPD Reflections (Activity 1- AC 2.3 Demonstrate proactive approaches to developing, recording and reflecting on your professional knowledge, skills and experiences.)

Reflection 1

Word Count – 318 Words

Formal/Informal Development activities from the last 12 monthsWhat did I learn?What did the learning experience tell me about myself?How does this learning experience impact my professional practice and the way I’ll approach situations in the future?What do I need to do next for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact (e.g., on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession, society)?
 Undertook a five-month programme on creating purposeful relationship and collaborations with others.            I attained vital skills and knowledge needed when working inclusively with diverse members of my team. The programme taught me that positive workplace relationships improve organisational performance and productivity while reducing cases of conflicts. Hence, employees work harmonious to accomplish a common objective. Besides, the programme educated me on the essence of having collaborations with colleagues and its role in promoting organisational growth, creativity and innovation.                           The new knowledge and skills learnt will enable me embrace the correct means of building and nurturing relationships amongst my team members and various shareholders in my firm. These admirable relationships will be critical in uniting the entire staff and enhancing their daily operations and roles. Besides, relating with clients will be easier since I already have the knowledge needed on building positive relationships with others.  I will work collaboratively with my co-workers to devise the best means for effective organisational goal attainment. This learning will assist me and my colleagues in assessing earlier methods that worked efficiently once applied and incorporating them into future organisational plans. Also, the programme assisted me in categorising different customers and developing appropriate methods for handling each individually.    I           I will urge my colleagues to undertake the same programme in order to acquire the skills and knowledge for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession and the society at large. Furthermore, I offer community learning forums to provide members of the society on the importance of establishing purposeful relationships with other workmates in facilitating organisational efficiency in service delivery. Moreover, organisational departments should outline and publish a summary on crucial arguments from the programme, and then proceed to safely store the summary to act as mementos for all departments. Thus, the mementos can serve as a reference point for future and current staff to refer to.

Screenshots for reflection 1

Reflection 2

Word Count – 277 words

Formal/Informal Development activities from the last 12 monthsWhat did I learn?What did the learning experience tell me about myself?How does this learning experience impact my professional practice and the way I’ll approach situations in the future?What do I need to do next for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact (e.g. on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession, society)?
Participated in a four-month online research on enhancing employee voice.               I learnt that direct relation between employee wellbeing and job satisfaction, retention rates and employee productivity. Also, I gained skills and knowledge on various tools and techniques which entities implement to improve employee voice. Some of these tools include; focus groups, 360-degree feedbacks and use of pulse surveys. I learnt that use of these strategies is quite easy when a person is skilled and knowledgeable about them.    The learning experience told me that I enjoy listening to my colleagues’ viewpoints. Moreover, the learning experience told me that I am mindful when considering others diverse perspectives in a wide range of topics.T My learning experience will enable me to develop and implement people practices that positively impact employees’ overall wellbeing like flexible working hours, health and financial plans and wellness programs. Moreover, this learning will impact my professional practice in promoting my firm’s employee voice by collecting feedback and using employee voice tools to inform organisational policies and practices.    I         I will ask the top management to hire instructors and pay internet fees for my co-workers to undertake the same online research so as to acquire knowledge on means to enhance employee voice. Additionally, I will write down crucial sum-up-points on employee voice and offer them to my co-workers and organisational departments to gain the skills that I learnt. Also, I will advocate for regular use of online employee voice tools to develop one’s understanding of core voice tools and employee wellbeing. Moreover, I will encourage colleagues, team members, shareholders and clients to freely voice their opinions and views on various platforms for improved services and increased engagement.

Screenshots for reflection 2

Reflection 3

Word Count – 163 Words

Formal/Informal Development activities from the last 12 monthsWhat did I learn?What did the learning experience tell me about myself?How does this learning experience impact my professional practice and the way I’ll approach situations in the future?What do I need to do next for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact (e.g., on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession, society)?
Joined an evidence-based people practice mentorship workshop for three months.                 ]         I learnt about effective methods of making good judgements and decisions that fact-informed. Also, I learnt that it is crucial for a people professional to be directed by expertise consultation, evidence literature when making decisions. Besides, I learnt that collaboration between organisational functions is vital for its success.  The learning told me that I can mentor my team members, peers, and co-workers effectively.            I will use the learning experience to improve my decision-making processes by consulting widely and using relevant evidence. Additionally, I will work collaboratively with co-workers in my profession to promote organisational growth and stability.   ly the  I         To have a wider positive impact I will inform my colleagues in people practice to summarise vital points I acquired in the workshop to refer back to when developing practices and policies critical for realisation of the entity’s success.              


References

Aradhya D. (2020, October 24). Ethics: Definition, principles, importance, ethical issues, ethical dilemma, code of ethics. Your Article Library. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/business/ethics/ethics/99812

Boatman, A. (2022, June 28). 7 ways HR can help create an inclusive environment at work. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.aihr.com/blog/inclusive-environment-at-work/

Bob, H. (2019). Equal Rights Trust. (Online). Retrieved November 7,2022 from https://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/bob%20hepple.pdf

CIPD. (2022). Code of professional conduct. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.cipd.co.uk/about/what-we-do/professional-standards/code#gref

CIPD. (2019, September 23). Building inclusive workplaces. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/relations/diversity/building-inclusive-workplaces#gref

CIPD. (2022, August 24). Ethical practice and the role of people professionals | Factsheets | CIPD. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/culture/ethics/role-hr-factsheet#gref

Indeed Editorial Team. (2021, November 30). Just a moment... What are personal and professional values and why are they important? Just a moment (Online). Retrieved November 7,2022 from https://uk.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/personal-professional-values

Partners, M. (2022, September 22). 11 ways to keep your skills and knowledge current. MBO Partners. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.mbopartners.com/blog/how-manage-small-business/how-to-keep-your-skills-and-knowledge-current-and-why-it-matters1/

Introduction

Decision making is critical for an organisations perfomance . There are is a wide range of  decision -making  approaches that could be used to identify possible solutions to organisational problems as well as specific issues relating to people practice.Evidence based practice is one of the concepts of decision making that has proven to give the desired outcome.It  is based on the concept that good decision making is attained through drawing on the best available evidence and critical thinking(CIPD, 2020). Evidence based practice is governed by several principles such as critical thinking. There are various theories that are linked to this approach and are of significance to decision making eg Utilitarianism ethical theory and Kant’s moral theory .

Explain how the management of people tends to vary depending on whether a labour market is tight or loose. Illustrate your answer with examples from your own observations and your reading.

Introduction

The macroeconomic context serves as an important indicator of labour market activity, which in turn defines the scope of how organisations hire, engage, and develop their employees in accordance with the overall organisational objectives. HR professionals who are aware of the different interconnected aspects that exist within this dynamic will be better equipped to monitor potential developments and adjust to changes with more agility. The key economic terminology and guidelines covered under this unit including economic cycles, stability, growth and inflation. The economic conditions create the context for day-to-day business, ultimately determining how many employees organisations must hire, engage, and develop in order to meet client demand.

Measuring Economy

The term “economy” refers to a variety of interactions that aid in the allocation of physical and human resources to the manufacturing, distribution, and consumption of the various commodities and services that consumers desire or require (De Pascale et al., 2021). The price of products and services or their market value is determined by a combination of the relative demand for these products and services and the comparative supply of the resources required to manufacture them. Adding the market values of all goods produced provides an overall assessment of the economy’s size. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the most often used metric in economics. A market is not the only setting where products, services, and activities of monetary worth can be bought and sold. Assessments of the value of certain non-marketed activities, such as provision of public services, are included in GDP, however other activities, such as the ones that involves caregiving and work done at home, are not quantified in anyway (De Pascale et al., 2021).

The percentage change in gross domestic product (GDP) during a certain period, such as a year or a quarter, is an indicator of economic expansion. This is a critical economic statistic since it indicates the rate at which national income is increasing or decreasing over time. The output level of an economy is limited by consumer demand for goods and services and the availability of resources such as land, capital, energy, and labour. Output levels are also dependent on how effectively these inputs are utilised to create goods and services valued by customers or clients of public services – this is referred to as the economy’s productivity. GDP per hour worked is a critical indicator of labour productivity.

According to economics theory, in order to enhance productivity, organisations should constantly assess their operations to ensure that they can utilize innovative procedure in the implementation of new ideas, technology and software, new sources of labour, and innovative methods of structuring their operations. Increased employee involvement is also necessity for increased productivity.

Economic growth and inflation

There is a limitation to the level of GDP that a nation may attain within a specific timeframe. This is known as potential GDP, and it represents the economy’s ability to supply products and services. Hence, It is likely that if demand for goods and services surpasses potential GDP, there will be upward pressure on prices and costs, which would lead to a rise in the overall rate of inflation. However, if there are significant changes in the commodities that the United Kingdom imports (such as gas), inflation can rise or fall regardless of the balance of demand and supply in the country (Mishchenko et al., 2018).

Potential GDP is determined by a number of factors: The following are some of the factors that determine the potential GDP:

  • The amount of work that employees are capable and willing to accomplish, which will be determined by human resource availability.( The population size, the number of people who can or want to work, and the number of hours they work are all factors to consider.).
  • The quantity of physical capital (machinery, equipment, computers, etc) that individuals use in their daily lives.
  • The level of competence that people employ in their work that empowers them to generate more with each hour of labour.
  • The degree of knowledge and technology that increases the quality of physical capital used by employees in their work.
  • A set of strategies, including human resource practices and extended team leadership, that enable individuals to generate more in each hour of labour.

Any change in any of these variables will have an impact on potential GDP. Given that there is usually an underlying (Positive) shift in either all or each variable, potential GDP has a tendency to increase over time. This underlying pace at which the economy is changing over time is referred to as the trend rate of economic growth, which is also known as the sustainable growth rate.

Question 4

What are the main causes of increased social inequality around the world? To what extent could changes in HR practice help to reduce social inequality? Provide examples to support your answer.

Social inequality is the effect of the uneven distribution of resources in society. Areas mainly affected include employment, housing, healthcare, income, and education. It is easy to depict this bias based on an individual’s occupation, family life, quality of the neighborhood, credit access, and even job satisfaction (Hours, 2019). However, another form of social inequality comes from society’s definition of gender roles and social stereotyping. Moreover, the implementation of discriminatory legislation might also result in social inequalities between religions, classes, and ethnic groups. Some of the primary causes of increased social inequality include;

Gender

Compared to men, women are at an increased risk of becoming poor as they hold a higher probability of being unemployed. According to (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019) women in caring roles are not paid, while those in the workforce are often paid less than their male counterparts. While efforts have been made to reduce the gender pay gap since the 1970s, with a 22% drop, the fact remains that it still exists (Batruch, 2019). Influenced by factors such as discrimination and community norms, these gender disparities cause much harm to the female gender. The gender pay gap is still challenging despite accounting for years of experience, hours worked, and even education (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). The societal norms highly impact the women’s decisions on their careers and livelihoods; hence it is a struggle for the female gender to succeed in highly competitive workplaces with good pay due to their family commitments and stigma.

Social Class

The class gap between the rich and the poor is getting broader in several countries, with the rich growing richer and the poor losing their fundamental support elements in the system (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). The situation does not get any better, with the unequal distribution of wealth becoming more rampant between the two classes. Hence, it has resulted in a struggle for the underprivileged who struggle to find employment, and even when they do, their wages fail to meet their financial needs.

Race/ethnicity

Disparities among races have existed for decades, and despite the efforts to reduce the gap, it continues to be a significant cause of social inequality. Despite minority groups experiencing significant employment and educational growth milestones, they are still subjected to substantial pay penalties and pay gaps. According to Collins, (2019) the average pay of an African-American male working on a full-time basis is 17% lower than that of their white male counterparts. Similarly, white female graduates’ pay penalties are 9% lower than African American female graduates. From the stated figures, one can understand how the pay discrimination between races undermines the minority races’ quality of life. For instance, these disparities force the minority races to reside in deprived neighbourhoods with poor access to essential resources such as health care and security.

How Changes in Human Resource Practice Could Help Reduce Social Inequality

While not all social inequalities are organisational, people practice professionals have a vital role in reducing social inequality by encouraging equality and fairness in job opportunities and the treatment of employees. Human resource managers can ensure that recruitments have discriminatory cautions, thus eliminating discrimination and bias in the recruitment process. Furthermore, people professionals could benefit from enhancing their skills by engaging in diversity training. This training would place them in a central position in creating awareness at the organisation on diversity benefits (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). The main goal of the training is to equip HR professionals with an understanding of cultural differences and diverse beliefs, improve their skills in working and interacting with individuals from diverse backgrounds, and improve their knowledge of diversity issues.

Besides equipping themselves with knowledge and skills, human resource managers can also help curb social inequality by addressing matters such as payment of liveable, fair, and secure wages (Batruch, et al., 2019). Therefore, they can ensure that employees who receive low-pay receive career progression and competitive pay. This strategy will address poverty pay, thus presenting individuals with upward mobility opportunities. It is the responsibility of human resource managers to create diverse environments at the workplace. Their roles include enhancing work opportunities for each individual regardless of their class and making work flexible (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). HR managers should also ensure no bias or prejudice in making decisions on recruitment, pay, or promotions. They should, therefore, challenge their organisations to matters that influence discrimination at the workplace.

What are the main causes of increased social inequality around the world? To what extent could changes in HR practice help to reduce social inequality? Provide examples to support your answer.

Social inequality is the effect of the uneven distribution of resources in society. Areas mainly affected include employment, housing, healthcare, income, and education. It is easy to depict this bias based on an individual’s occupation, family life, quality of the neighborhood, credit access, and even job satisfaction (Hours, 2019). However, another form of social inequality comes from society’s definition of gender roles and social stereotyping. Moreover, the implementation of discriminatory legislation might also result in social inequalities between religions, classes, and ethnic groups. Some of the primary causes of increased social inequality include;

Gender

Compared to men, women are at an increased risk of becoming poor as they hold a higher probability of being unemployed. According to (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019) women in caring roles are not paid, while those in the workforce are often paid less than their male counterparts. While efforts have been made to reduce the gender pay gap since the 1970s, with a 22% drop, the fact remains that it still exists (Batruch, 2019). Influenced by factors such as discrimination and community norms, these gender disparities cause much harm to the female gender. The gender pay gap is still challenging despite accounting for years of experience, hours worked, and even education (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). The societal norms highly impact the women’s decisions on their careers and livelihoods; hence it is a struggle for the female gender to succeed in highly competitive workplaces with good pay due to their family commitments and stigma.

Social Class

The class gap between the rich and the poor is getting broader in several countries, with the rich growing richer and the poor losing their fundamental support elements in the system (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). The situation does not get any better, with the unequal distribution of wealth becoming more rampant between the two classes. Hence, it has resulted in a struggle for the underprivileged who struggle to find employment, and even when they do, their wages fail to meet their financial needs.

Race/ethnicity

Disparities among races have existed for decades, and despite the efforts to reduce the gap, it continues to be a significant cause of social inequality. Despite minority groups experiencing significant employment and educational growth milestones, they are still subjected to substantial pay penalties and pay gaps. According to Collins, (2019) the average pay of an African-American male working on a full-time basis is 17% lower than that of their white male counterparts. Similarly, white female graduates’ pay penalties are 9% lower than African American female graduates. From the stated figures, one can understand how the pay discrimination between races undermines the minority races’ quality of life. For instance, these disparities force the minority races to reside in deprived neighbourhoods with poor access to essential resources such as health care and security.

How Changes in Human Resource Practice Could Help Reduce Social Inequality

While not all social inequalities are organisational, people practice professionals have a vital role in reducing social inequality by encouraging equality and fairness in job opportunities and the treatment of employees. Human resource managers can ensure that recruitments have discriminatory cautions, thus eliminating discrimination and bias in the recruitment process. Furthermore, people professionals could benefit from enhancing their skills by engaging in diversity training. This training would place them in a central position in creating awareness at the organisation on diversity benefits (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). The main goal of the training is to equip HR professionals with an understanding of cultural differences and diverse beliefs, improve their skills in working and interacting with individuals from diverse backgrounds, and improve their knowledge of diversity issues.

Besides equipping themselves with knowledge and skills, human resource managers can also help curb social inequality by addressing matters such as payment of liveable, fair, and secure wages (Batruch, et al., 2019). Therefore, they can ensure that employees who receive low-pay receive career progression and competitive pay. This strategy will address poverty pay, thus presenting individuals with upward mobility opportunities. It is the responsibility of human resource managers to create diverse environments at the workplace. Their roles include enhancing work opportunities for each individual regardless of their class and making work flexible (Atena and Tiron-Tudor, 2019). HR managers should also ensure no bias or prejudice in making decisions on recruitment, pay, or promotions. They should, therefore, challenge their organisations to matters that influence discrimination at the workplace.

Identify THREE distinct steps that managers can take to encourage greater innovation and creativity in their organisations. Which do you think would be most effective in your sector or industry? Justify your answer.

Employers aim to acquire competent employees who will assist in driving the organisation towards their goals and objectives, thus achieving their organisational success. However, employers seek the qualities of innovation and creativity in their employees to stimulate creativity and help the organisation explore new and unknown territories in the industry, thus fostering productivity and organisational performance (Kremer et al., 2019). In many contemporary organisations, employees are presented with the opportunity to present new creative ideas and innovative business approaches to promote organisational success. Therefore, three distinct steps managers can take to promote more incredible innovations and creativity among their employees in the organisations include;

Creating a Supportive Working Environment

A supportive work environment is critical to promoting creativity and innovation among employees. Therefore, to foster a supportive work environment, managers should refrain from criticizing their employee’s ideas, whether good or bad, as it demoralizes them from trying again. Furthermore, managers should create a flexible working environment for the employees, including flexible schedules and regular breaks (Kremer et al., 2019). When employees are allowed to rest, they can relax their minds, which can be a great habour of good ideas (Moussa et al., 2018). Giving employees room to rest allows them to get through blocks and develop creative solutions and drive towards organisational success, for they are not constantly too exhausted to think. Furthermore, a supportive work environment encompasses the manager offering time and resources to the employees to adequately equip them with creativity and the ability to explore new horizons for innovative ideas that would come in handy in helping the organisation keep its competitors at bay.

Compensating Creativity and Innovation

Rewarding employees for their efforts is a great way to encourage them to become more creative and innovative. Whether verbally or financially, compensating employees is vital in developing a work culture that encourages them to constantly think of new ideas that eventually contribute to organisational success (Matsuo, 2022). For instance, if an employee who presented a practical idea that has boosted organisational productivity is rewarded through a bonus, salary increase, or promotion, employees will also be encouraged to seek out such ideas, which results in organisational growth. Compensating employees also shows the employees that their ideas are valued and respected in the organisation ((Kremer et al., 2019). When employees feel valued and respected, they are motivated to do their best as they feel they are a vital component of the organisation. Therefore, managers must ensure that they regularly offer rewards to employees who offer ideas that result in organisational productivity, success, and growth.

Providing Employees with Training and Learning Opportunities

Another component contributing to employee creativity and innovation is regular training and learning. Providing employees with career development opportunities is essential to sharpen their skills. Thus, they are better positioned to be more creative and innovative. Employees who lack training or are rarely offered learning opportunities to be conversant with emerging trends often find it challenging to develop new ideas that steer the organisation toward a new direction (Matsuo, 2022). Therefore, it is essential to offer learning opportunities to employees through hands-on lessons, seminars, and lectures. Employees are more equipped to adapt to changing and improving work environments when equipped with training and development programs, becoming more creative and innovative ((Matsuo, 2022)). Therefore, the employees can be more equipped and motivated to develop new and creative ideas for any organization’s challenges.

The Most Effective Step in the Marketing Industry

Creativity and innovation are critical in the marketing sector as they allow a company to acquire an advantage over its competitors in congested markets. Being creative and occasionally thinking outside the box may pay off quite well in the marketing profession. Developing tactics that will assist the marketing team in pushing boundaries and creating big ideas will aid the organisation in moving to the next stage of development (Balietti, and Riedl, 2021). Managers must first establish a supportive working atmosphere to foster more incredible innovation and originality in the marketing business, which can be achieved by listening to the marketing team’s problems, assisting them as needed, and offering emotional support. Managers can also establish open office hours during which the marketing team can share challenges and difficulties they are encountering in the field and how they might assist them in succeeding (Allahar, 2018).

Marketers, for example, are frequently confronted with diverse and compartmentalized data as a result of rapid digital revolutions, which stifle their creativity and innovation. By discussing these issues with their supervisors, marketers can develop more creative and novel ways to engage with customer data. Creating a conducive atmosphere marketing environment also requires managers to communicate clearly to the marketing team their duties and responsibilities in ensuring that they innovatively and creatively engage customers.

You have been asked to make recommendations to your senior management team about how your organisation might improve its record in the area of sustainability. You are asked to identify TWO distinct interventions that will not be too expensive to implement. What would you recommend and why?

There are numerous ways to characterize organisational development, all of which share basic characteristics despite their various interpretations. Organisation development, regardless of approach, has developed to become one of the most crucial practices an organization requires to retain performance in a fast-changing environment.

Organisation development is a process in which interventions are developed with a ‘systematic mind-set.’ That is, they align with the goals and activities of the organization in an organized and deliberate manner, with the goal of achieving a particular outcome that will enhance the company’s overall performance. Organization development is defined as ‘a planned and methodical strategy to allowing sustained organisational effectiveness via the engagement of its employees from the standpoint of the people profession (Geldenhuys, 2022).

When working with line managers and human resource professionals, organisation development specialists can significantly assist the firm in achieving its objectives. The professionals have extensive experience in traversing complexity in order to decipher what the organisation is seeking to accomplish; diagnose underlying issues, challenges, and opportunities; and select the most appropriate techniques for the organisation’s development moving forward.

Employees are frequently at the centre of the resulting organisational changes, and people professionals must have a firm grasp of the relationship between organisational growth and strategy and the human resource agenda. They should use their competence and knowledge of the organisation to question assumptions, assist in the uncovering of non-obvious challenges, identify and assess barriers/enablers to implementation, and effectively manage change.

Organisational development can take several shapes and focus on different areas of an organisation, which is why OD has emerged from a variety of disciplines, each with a somewhat different perspective on what it is and how it should be carried out. Some essential concepts, however, are always present:

  • When an organisation’s primary competitive advantage is derived from its employees (rather than from technology or machinery), organizational development will entail the use of behavioural science knowledge and experience in areas such as management, group dynamics, and job design. This guarantees that people’s practices are established in a manner that is informed by research and scientific knowledge of why and how people behave in certain ways.
  • Organizations’ development efforts are focused on increasing the value derived from their resources. For instance, in a computer-based production facility, the development efforts might be concentrated on mechanical efficiencies, while in an organization that provides people services, the development efforts might be concentrated on individuals’ abilities.
  • Organizational development is centred on an organization’s strategy, objectives, and fundamental purpose — all development activities are directed at achieving these objectives to a greater extent. Without this emphasis, development might become incongruent with the organisation’s overall mission and generate additional problems.
  • Change management and organizational development are intertwined in the sense that several developments would be executed using change management practices moreover they are also interrelated in the sense that they are carried out consistently; organizational development is a type of organized, currently underway, systematic change that seeks to institutionalize continuous improvement within organisations.

The Organisational development process has 4 major stages with various sub-stages:

  1. Organisation review; this is an identification stage where the firm conducts a need analysis to identify what it needs to grow.  This process utilizes a range of tools and approaches, including:
  2. Strategic review
  3. Quantitative performance targets
  4. Target Operating Model
  5. Future state analysis
  6. PESTLE
  7. SWOT

Determine the degree to which such needs are addressed. Basically, the same as conducting a gap analysis to determine the gap between a present position and a desirable future position while utilizing a variety of concepts or diagnostic equipment to analyse the scenario thoroughly.

  • Organizational design frameworks which can be used as diagnostics include; the Burke Litwin framework and McKinsey’s 7S model.
  • Force Field Analysis.
  • Six Sigma
  • Total Quality Management (TQM).

Determining the kind of intervention that should be used to fill the void and whether to design or purchase it: Due to its multidisciplinary roots, organisational development has a variety of approaches; the following are an example of the intervention that could be used;

  • Strategic interventions-which includes; business planning, cultural change, transformation programmes.
  • Human process interventions involve coaching, training, group work, facilitation, and action learning.
  • Human resource interventions aim to reward, motivate, performance management, and employee surveys.
  • Techno-structural interventions include; Lean / Six Sigma, business process reengineering, and outsourcing.

All of these are similar in that they strive to improve a firm’s procedures and practices, but each category handles the activity differently based on what the practitioner believes is required. In essence, they are attempting to increase organizational effectiveness, but they will vary based on the desired strategy. A competent organizational development practitioner will ascertain the nature of the problem (diagnostic) and determine which strategy/approach is most likely to resolve it.

Implement the initiative; it is always prudent to implement comprehensive change management strategies, including a strong emphasis on communication, stakeholder engagement, and evaluation measures. This Landing transformational change report discusses current change management theory as well as specific action recommendations for change interventions in organisations. The change management theory discussed is practical and has been deployed by a number of organizations that have put the concepts into action.

Question 4

Burke and Litwin (1992) define ‘organisational climate’ as being the ‘collective impressions, expectations, and feelings’ that employees currently have towards their employer. They go on to argue that policy and practice in the field of reward management plays a major role in influencing ‘organisational climate’. To what extent do you agree, and why? Justify your answer with reference to your reading and personal experience.

Employees’ attitudes toward their employers’ policies and procedures can be measured with the help of organizational climate which acts as a barometer for determining the employee’s collective impressions, expectations, and feelings. Using measurements read from this barometer, employers can align the organizational policies and practices to the organisational goals and strategy (Ahmad et al., 2018). The concept of organisational climate offers more clearly defined tangible categories that have a direct relationship to the measurable outcomes compared to organizational culture which is a vague concept. Since organizational climate is flexible it serves as a critical variable for people in management who might desire to measure the anticipated response to a new policy or modification, or even employee responses to the measures of an existing policy (Ahmad et al., 2018). Furthermore, organisational climate captures slice of response to a specific policy, change, metric or even a manager compared to its counterpart organisational culture which is a comprehensive response and understanding of “how things work around here (Mohapatra, 2018).” For this reason when determining the organisational climate, researchers often place a lot of consideration on different organisational climate. Since organisational climate is related to employee motivation, creating a motivating atmosphere in company settings is dependent on managers’ capacity to build a supportive organizational climate (Elmadag & Ellinger, 2018). This section shall discuss the impact a reward system on establishing a positive and favourable organizational climate.

Reward management is defined as the implementation of policies and practices that reward each organisation employee and consistently and fairly. When employees are rewarded for their exceptional performance, they feel valued and it acts as a great motivator that enhances productivity (Elmadag & Ellinger, 2018). A successful reward management system offers the employees with the opportunity to advance and allows the organisation to recognise good employees ( Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020). Furthermore, they system supports the company’s personnel requirements, culture and performance, and overall strategy and purpose. A compelling reward management system is that which encourages a healthy work-life balance that leaves the employees feeling and performing at their best (Ngwa et al., 2019).  Furthermore it helps to create a caring and compassionate workplace community that contributes to a positive organisational climate.

The most common and natural option of any reward system is the offering of monetary incentives. Monetary rewards often include, allowances, bonuses and hikes all which are key in motivating the employees. However, while salaries and perks are significant in employee motivation, studies have shown that non-monetary rewards are also just as motivating to the employees ( Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020). Therefore, for a reward system to be considered effective, it must combine the employees’ intrinsic demands with external benefits to become the perfect compensation system that would incentivize them to achieve to their full capacity. For the reward to be more effective, many businesses have implemented reward systems and policies that identify the fit between distinct needs and the alignment of an employee’s talents with the position at work (Ngwa et al., 2019). Of course while the fundamental components of the reward system must adhere to organizational regulations, variable compensation and components particular to individual bands of employees are at the discretion of the division or group to which the employees belong.

While developing a reward system, there are a few factors which determine the bonus and pay raises including the industry standards, the organisation’s performance in the preceding year and finally the organisational policies. Furthermore, it is important to place the current market conditions into consideration in addition to the industry’s demand and supply dynamics in terms of skill need and staff availability (Ahmad et al., 2018). This is key to ensure that the reward system is effective in ensuring that the reward management system is effective in retaining top employee talent especially in the service industry where there exists a fierce competition for highly trained personnel (Ngwa et al., 2019). Hence, it is important for the compensation systems must reflect market trends rather than what the firm believes to be a fair reward system. When it comes to non-financial reward systems, the rewards are unique to each organisation for each company has its own policies and way of combining non-monetary reward and recognition systems (Ngwa et al., 2019).  For instance, many multinational corporations offer non-financial reward schemes in terms of special events and days set aside to honour the employees.

In addition to organizational productivity, employee performance is also heavily influenced by the reward policy. Therefore, they are crucial to the company’s achievement of its objectives as well. Furthermore, reward management is also significant to the evaluation of organizational performance (Ngwa et al., 2019).. This is due to the fact that rewards in any system affect the rate and direction of organisational performance. Rewards have long been acknowledged as an important tool for increasing employee productivity and accomplishing the goals of an organisation (Mohapatra, 2018).  A successful reward system leaves the employees feeling valued by their employer which encourages them to not only work hard but better thus increasing their productivity. Employees are encouraged to stay at an organisation where they are aware that their managers are concerned about their well-being (Mohapatra, 2018). Furthermore, if employees recognize that their employers are honed and taking care of their needs, they prioritize the organizational goals more and take interest in attaining the organization’s specified goals.

One cannot emphasize enough on the significance of rewarding the employees in the organisation. It goes undisputed that employees who are constantly and fairly rewarded are more efficient, productive and motivated to work towards the set objectives compared to employees who are not rewarded. Highly compensated personnel provide a competitive edge to any firm since their performance contributes to the achievement of its objectives. Therefore, it is correct to say that there is a direct correlation between reward management to the level of motivation and organisational output (Ngwa et al., 2019).. As a result, the majority of employees attempt to equate their output in terms of performance with the amount of motivation generated by the incentives they receive at work. It is because rewards give the desired stamina that drives organizational performance. When employees are motivated, determined to work towards the organisational goals, then the organisational climate is positive. It is because employees feel that the organisation is concerned about their well-being and hence they will want to remain in the organisation longer. Therefore, policy and practice in the field of reward management plays a major role in influencing ‘organisational climate’. 

References

Ahmad, K.Z.B., Jasimuddin, S.M. and Kee, W.L., 2018. Organizational climate and job satisfaction: do employees’ personalities matter?. Management Decision.

Elmadağ, A.B. and Ellinger, A.E., 2018. Alleviating job stress to improve service employee work affect: the influence of rewarding. Service Business12(1), pp.121-141.

Mohapatra, I. and Sundaray, B.K., 2018. Impact of employee empowerment on employee performance. International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)1, pp.98-102.

Ngwa, W.T., Adeleke, B.S., Agbaeze, E.K., Ghasi, N.C. and Imhanrenialena, B.O., 2019. Effect of reward system on employee performance among selected manufacturing firms in the Litoral region of Cameroon. Academy of Strategic Management Journal18(3), pp.1-16.

Paais, M. and Pattiruhu, J.R., 2020. Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business7(8), pp.577-588.

Write a 1000 word briefing paper for your senior management team on how your organisation’s HR / L&D functions might usefully partner with either a major customer or a major supplier to share good practice in respect of a current challenge.

Yoghoyogho  is a European food company specializing in strained yogurt. The company has recently been experiencing issues with customer satisfaction where many of its customers have complained about issues in the quality of products they produce. Some have also complained of mislabelling and a change in flavours which has resulted in decreased sales. The company has suffered major loses which have consequently led to major layoffs and low staff morale that further affected the organisations strategy. To reverse this situation the HR and LD department hopes to work and in hand with Green World whole foods to derive quick and effective solutions to salvage the situation before it has any further impacts to the organisation’s profitability.  Research indicates that a company that succeeds in streamlining the customer experience into the company culture is likely to experience a 10 – 12% increase in its revenue as the customers are happy with the products or services (Bahadur et al., 2018, p102). While this issue can be handled by the customer experience team, further research has indicated that great customer experience comes about with employee engagement hence why the Human Resources team must be on board in assisting Yoghoyogho company raise its revenue and increase customer and employee satisfaction. Below are some of the areas where the HR team in cooperation with the customer experience team can work with the organisation’s major customer Green World Whole foods to achieve the organisational goals.

Linking customer feedback and employee engagement

In 2016, the Dorchester Hotel which is one of UK’s Best Luxury hotel scooped two awards at the Distinction in Talent Management at the HR Distinction Awards and the Best UK Luxury Hotel Brand at the British Travel Awards. These achievements were as a result of their successful collaboration of the HR and people teams with the customer experience teams (Bahadur et al., 2018, p105). Yoghoyogho should consider employing a similar tactic to rebuild its brand. Almost 35% of the company’s products are purchased Green World Wholefoods therefore with the help of Green World the customer service teams can collect information on areas that need improving and areas that might be scrapped of completely or areas that could be introduced to the brand.

Research has shown that companies that liked their customer experience with employee engagement reported an improvement in their customer experience while 75% indicated that it also led to a highly motivated staff (Ahmed et al., 2020). Almost six out of ten organizations also claimed it helped them to obtain awareness into activities that directly relate to business objectives, and more than half said it enabled them to bridge excellent customer experiences to engaged staff. Sharing customer experience and staff engagement data could provide customer experience teams with a range of new opportunities (Ahmed et al., 2020). Total Fitness is one such organisation which has experienced success upon linking customer experience to employee engagement. Before applying the strategy the company, like Yoghoyogho, suffered from low staff morale and there were a lot of layoffs. At the onset of the strategy the organisation had an NPS score of -31 rose to 4 in 2 years of implementation which was 9 points above industry average (Wikhamn, 2019, p107)  .

This technique would be helpful to the Human Resource team to link the customer feedback to employee engagement. Improving employee engagement and customer experience in tandem rather than treating them as separate silos might be key to increasing the company’s productivity, sales and revenue. Upon improvement and rebranding of products, Net Promoter Score is one of the effective measures the customer service can use to track the customer loyalty (Bahadar et al., 2018). Since customer experience is linked to employee engagement, a number of initiatives can be applied alongside the customer feedback to encourage employee output. From long experience in People management, often low staff morale is due to lack of employee engagement and lack of motivation. Therefore, these initiatives should work to improve these two areas.

 To begin with, since the organisation aims to introduce a few changes, it is important that before the decision is made employees are consulted to offer feedback. It can be done through the reintroduction of weekly meetings which can later switch to biweekly once the implementation process is complete (Bahadar et al., 2018). Furthermore, with the current layoffs and increased turnover rate, the organisation should consider employing a rewards system in place to motivate the employees and help retain the human skills (Jawaad  et al, 2019). Since the organisation is currently not fit to have monetary rewards, it can start by introducing non-monetary award but gradually progress into offering monetary rewards when the profits start to improve. Employees who are motivated are organisations biggest assets as they share common goals with the organisation and hence will drive the organisation towards success.

Consumerization of HR

Other than cooperating with the customer experience teams the Human resource department can also coordinate with the marketing department to ensure that there is flow of information both internally and externally. The organisation is seeking to rebrand based on the feedback it will receive from Green World. Marketing department is important in the process as misbranding and change of flavours has been some of the issues that have resulted to poor sales. Therefore, the customers must be informed on the changes coming in. Consumerisation of HR is popular term that has been used to imply the additional roles of Human Resources beyond recruitment, engagement and development (Dechawatanapaisai, 2018).  Currently organisations have come to understand that branding not only focuses on marketing and that employees should be part made part for success (Dechawatanapaisai, 2018). Therefore, while it is the marketing department’s role to communicate the new strategy to the consumers, then the HR hold the responsibility of communicating the strategy to employees. In the case of Yoghoyogho, the HR will take up the role of training and development on the new strategies and technologies that the organisation intends to implement as it employs the new strategy. Therefore, the marketing and HR teams employ the use of social and technology-based tools, to create a universal brand message that also applies to the employees (Jawaad et al., 2018). Other than that, while HR is involved in training and developing skills, the Marketing team would also help in advertising the organisation as a great employee environment to attract new talent and reduce the organisation’s turnover rate.

Yoghoyogho has in the past ignored consumer insights and feedback and the results have been fatal. In addition to low consumer satisfaction, the organisation has been faced with low staff morale (Ahmed,2020). HR is at the centre of this issues and coordination with a major consumer and other departments will go a long way in helping reduce these issues and work towards organisational success.

References

Ahmed, T., Khan, M.S., Thitivesa, D., Siraphatthada, Y. and Phumdara, T., 2020. Impact of employees engagement and knowledge sharing on organizational performance: Study of HR challenges in COVID-19 pandemic. Human Systems Management39(4), pp.589-601.­

Bahadur, W., Aziz, S. and Zulfiqar, S., 2018. Effect of employee empathy on customer satisfaction and loyalty during employee–customer interactions: The mediating role of customer affective commitment and perceived service quality. Cogent business & management5(1), p.1491780.

Dechawatanapaisal, D., 2018. Employee retention: the effects of internal branding and brand attitudes in sales organizations. Personnel Review.

Jawaad, M., Amir, A., Bashir, A. and Hasan, T., 2019. Human resource practices and organizational commitment: The mediating role of job satisfaction in emerging economy. Cogent Business & Management.

Wikhamn, W., 2019. Innovation, sustainable HRM and customer satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management76, pp.102-110.

Burke and Litwin (1992) define ‘organisational climate’ as being the ‘collective impressions, expectations, and feelings’ that employees currently have towards their employer. They go on to argue that policy and practice in the field of reward management plays a major role in influencing ‘organisational climate’. To what extent do you agree, and why? Justify your answer with reference to your reading and personal experience.

Employees’ attitudes toward their employers’ policies and procedures can be measured with the help of organizational climate which acts as a barometer for determining the employee’s collective impressions, expectations, and feelings. Using measurements read from this barometer, employers can align the organizational policies and practices to the organisational goals and strategy (Ahmad et al., 2018). The concept of organisational climate offers more clearly defined tangible categories that have a direct relationship to the measurable outcomes compared to organizational culture which is a vague concept. Since organizational climate is flexible it serves as a critical variable for people in management who might desire to measure the anticipated response to a new policy or modification, or even employee responses to the measures of an existing policy (Ahmad et al., 2018). Furthermore, organisational climate captures slice of response to a specific policy, change, metric or even a manager compared to its counterpart organisational culture which is a comprehensive response and understanding of “how things work around here (Mohapatra, 2018).” For this reason when determining the organisational climate, researchers often place a lot of consideration on different organisational climate. Since organisational climate is related to employee motivation, creating a motivating atmosphere in company settings is dependent on managers’ capacity to build a supportive organizational climate (Elmadag & Ellinger, 2018). This section shall discuss the impact a reward system on establishing a positive and favourable organizational climate.

Reward management is defined as the implementation of policies and practices that reward each organisation employee and consistently and fairly. When employees are rewarded for their exceptional performance, they feel valued and it acts as a great motivator that enhances productivity (Elmadag & Ellinger, 2018). A successful reward management system offers the employees with the opportunity to advance and allows the organisation to recognise good employees ( Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020). Furthermore, they system supports the company’s personnel requirements, culture and performance, and overall strategy and purpose. A compelling reward management system is that which encourages a healthy work-life balance that leaves the employees feeling and performing at their best (Ngwa et al., 2019).  Furthermore it helps to create a caring and compassionate workplace community that contributes to a positive organisational climate.

The most common and natural option of any reward system is the offering of monetary incentives. Monetary rewards often include, allowances, bonuses and hikes all which are key in motivating the employees. However, while salaries and perks are significant in employee motivation, studies have shown that non-monetary rewards are also just as motivating to the employees ( Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020). Therefore, for a reward system to be considered effective, it must combine the employees’ intrinsic demands with external benefits to become the perfect compensation system that would incentivize them to achieve to their full capacity. For the reward to be more effective, many businesses have implemented reward systems and policies that identify the fit between distinct needs and the alignment of an employee’s talents with the position at work (Ngwa et al., 2019). Of course while the fundamental components of the reward system must adhere to organizational regulations, variable compensation and components particular to individual bands of employees are at the discretion of the division or group to which the employees belong.

While developing a reward system, there are a few factors which determine the bonus and pay raises including the industry standards, the organisation’s performance in the preceding year and finally the organisational policies. Furthermore, it is important to place the current market conditions into consideration in addition to the industry’s demand and supply dynamics in terms of skill need and staff availability (Ahmad et al., 2018). This is key to ensure that the reward system is effective in ensuring that the reward management system is effective in retaining top employee talent especially in the service industry where there exists a fierce competition for highly trained personnel (Ngwa et al., 2019). Hence, it is important for the compensation systems must reflect market trends rather than what the firm believes to be a fair reward system. When it comes to non-financial reward systems, the rewards are unique to each organisation for each company has its own policies and way of combining non-monetary reward and recognition systems (Ngwa et al., 2019).  For instance, many multinational corporations offer non-financial reward schemes in terms of special events and days set aside to honour the employees.

In addition to organizational productivity, employee performance is also heavily influenced by the reward policy. Therefore, they are crucial to the company’s achievement of its objectives as well. Furthermore, reward management is also significant to the evaluation of organizational performance (Ngwa et al., 2019).. This is due to the fact that rewards in any system affect the rate and direction of organisational performance. Rewards have long been acknowledged as an important tool for increasing employee productivity and accomplishing the goals of an organisation (Mohapatra, 2018).  A successful reward system leaves the employees feeling valued by their employer which encourages them to not only work hard but better thus increasing their productivity. Employees are encouraged to stay at an organisation where they are aware that their managers are concerned about their well-being (Mohapatra, 2018). Furthermore, if employees recognize that their employers are honed and taking care of their needs, they prioritize the organizational goals more and take interest in attaining the organization’s specified goals.

One cannot emphasize enough on the significance of rewarding the employees in the organisation. It goes undisputed that employees who are constantly and fairly rewarded are more efficient, productive and motivated to work towards the set objectives compared to employees who are not rewarded. Highly compensated personnel provide a competitive edge to any firm since their performance contributes to the achievement of its objectives. Therefore, it is correct to say that there is a direct correlation between reward management to the level of motivation and organisational output (Ngwa et al., 2019).. As a result, the majority of employees attempt to equate their output in terms of performance with the amount of motivation generated by the incentives they receive at work. It is because rewards give the desired stamina that drives organizational performance. When employees are motivated, determined to work towards the organisational goals, then the organisational climate is positive. It is because employees feel that the organisation is concerned about their well-being and hence they will want to remain in the organisation longer. Therefore, policy and practice in the field of reward management plays a major role in influencing ‘organisational climate’. 

References

Ahmad, K.Z.B., Jasimuddin, S.M. and Kee, W.L., 2018. Organizational climate and job satisfaction: do employees’ personalities matter?. Management Decision.

Elmadağ, A.B. and Ellinger, A.E., 2018. Alleviating job stress to improve service employee work affect: the influence of rewarding. Service Business12(1), pp.121-141.

Mohapatra, I. and Sundaray, B.K., 2018. Impact of employee empowerment on employee performance. International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)1, pp.98-102.

Ngwa, W.T., Adeleke, B.S., Agbaeze, E.K., Ghasi, N.C. and Imhanrenialena, B.O., 2019. Effect of reward system on employee performance among selected manufacturing firms in the Litoral region of Cameroon. Academy of Strategic Management Journal18(3), pp.1-16.

Paais, M. and Pattiruhu, J.R., 2020. Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business7(8), pp.577-588.

Your Chief Executive Officer (CEO) has e-mailed you following a networking webinar which included a brief presentation about ‘high commitment models of HRM’. She asks you to critically evaluate the pros and cons of either adopting this model for your organisation or making further use of it. Draft a 1000 word briefing paper on this topic for your CEO.

Introduction

It’s almost redundant to say that the nature of the job relationship has altered dramatically in the last two decades. Whereas the traditional employment relationship might once be described as a commutation of job security for organizational adhesion and consistent price for performance, changes like work and people’s expectations of work have resulted in forming a new employment relationship. A more competitive corporate environment needs advanced accent on short-term job contracts and performance-based awards for organizations. For employees, a substitute definition of success implies that companies are continuously dealing with a decreasing labor pool that values the well-being and personal advancement at least as much as continuance employment and internal promotions.

Organizations have difficulty as expectations of the employee relationship change. How can organizations elicit loyalty and performance from their employees when they cannot deliver the long-term work stability and other valuable field possibilities that were once anticipated of them? Other businesses have reacted to the issue by using what has been dubbed high performance management techniques that commits them to the course.

High Commitment HRM model

Intellectual curiosity and study in emerging political human resource management approach known as “high performance” management techniques have increased dramatically since the early 1990s (Teo et al., 2021). Such processes include the collective decision, education and training, selective staffing, information, merit-based promotions, work security, and teamwork. Given the prevalence, it emphasizes the essentiality of fostering a sense of belonging through participation in shared organizational objectives and attempts to regulate corporate culture and ensure that employees work effectively within and for it. According to a substantial amount of study done over the last few years, high commitment management strategies, as well as some other approaches like high performance, complex sampling, and accelerated Human Resource Management practices, have been linked to various organizationally positive benefits, including high ROI, profitability, production efficiency, and super low associated with employee turnover(Rubel et al.,2018).

Importance High Commitment HRM model

The High Commitment HRM model may be of critical relevance to the firm since it allows management to include every employee in a specific activity. Additionally, management incorporates employees in the decision-making process, which motivates all employees to work harder to achieve success within a set time frame. As a result, our control may need to adopt this strategy, which will make all permanent employees feel valued and inspired to work harder soon. Apart from that, it should be noted that this HRM strategy will ensure that this organization will never have to worry about losing a large number of talented clientele. The High Commitment HRM approach ensures that no single person is left behind in the progress-making process, which gives all employees a sense of self-assurance and motivates them to work harder (Meijerink et al., 2020).

Negative effects of HCM

Considering the apparent advantages of high-commitment aspects of worker management, we believe that implementing such techniques could harm employer-worker relationship. We contend that high-performance management techniques such as promotions based on merit and work security imply significant commitments that most organizations are unable to fulfill. Despite having good intentions, the uncertainty and turbulence that characterize today’s business environment make it challenging for organizations to meet their commitments to employees by applying HCM principles. The high performance management strategy to employee management, in effect, reflects a paradox. Because of the positive impacts that high commitment management methods have been found to have on organizational performance, they have received a lot of attention. The favorable effects of high commitment management methods are theorized to be due to their excellent influence on corporate attitudinal reactions (e.g., organizational commitment, perceived administrative support). However, what happens when organizations is unable to meet its promises made in numerous HCM practices discussed in the literature (e.g., job stability, promotion chances, and investments in employee development)? We anticipate that contract breaches will frequently occur, given the nature of HCM activities. Still, we believe that the adverse consequences of contract breaches will be compounded in the case of violations involving HCM procedures. Employees are more likely to find HCM procedures appealing, and failing to relinquish them when promised is more likely to result in negative feedback than failure to pay more traditional HRM practices (Biscotti et al., 2018).

Conclusion

In an increasingly competitive company environment, high commitment management has been extensively delineated as an efficient technique of fostering excellent work connections. As a result, while implementing this model in the organization, as I have suggested, may result in more positive contracts than classical HRM practices, it is also more likely to understand contract violations and adverse outcomes for job relationship and worker level outcomes. With the numerous advantages of a high commitment governance strategies to worker management, implementation of the model should be combined with interpersonal treatment and fair procedures when changing or withdrawing HCM practices to aid in mitigating the negative implications that this model may else bring. Lastly, while the links connecting HCM and several organizationally favorable outcomes have been widely documented, there has been relatively little research on the potential negative consequences of HCM. As a result, to maximize the benefits of the models, our management team should support future research that will help us better understand the possible and potentially contradictory consequences of high commitment management techniques on worker outcomes and contract?

Reference

Biscotti, A.M., D’Amico, E. and Monge, F., 2018. Do environmental management systems affect the knowledge management process? The impact on the learning evolution and the relevance of organisational context. Journal of Knowledge Management.

Meijerink, J., Bos-Nehles, A. and de Leede, J., 2020. How employees’ pro-activity translates high-commitment HRM systems into work engagement: The mediating role of job crafting. The International Journal of Human Resource Management31(22), pp.2893-2918.

Rubel, M.R.B., Rimi, N.N., Yusliza, M.Y. and Kee, D.M.H., 2018. High commitment human resource management practices and employee service behaviour: Trust in management as mediator. IIMB Management Review30(4), pp.316-329.

Teo, S.T., Nguyen, D., Shafaei, A. and Bentley, T., 2021. High commitment HRM and burnout of frontline food service employees: a moderated mediation model. Employee Relations: The International Journal.

Activity 1: The Context of Professional Development

How the role of a people professional is changing?

Over time, the primary focus of people practices has shifted from labour resource management to the people needs maagement. The strategy has developed to become transactional, and most companies now place greater value on their contributions to HR  (CIPD, 2022). The trade-off, however, is worth it because the end result is outstanding. The health and safety of employees is a top priority, and the workspace is a positive environment in which to work. Human resources roles have been restructured becoming more strategic and in line with the company’s aims (Roth, 2018). As a result of its development, the role now encompasses both the implementation of talent strategy and the promotion of organizational objectives (CIPD, 2022).

What impact are these changes having on our CPD?

Professionals can build and improve their presentation skills by participating in continuous professional development (CPD), which also aids in the reduction of knowledge gaps and provides a competitive advantage in circumstances where one is required. Given the overall changes in the nature of the employment relationship, the strategies for professional learning and development will require a modification in order to continue accommodating career models. Managers must be self-assured and competent in order to conduct constructive conversations with individuals in a variety of professional arrangements (CIPD, 2022).

What are the key characteristics of a good-practice CPD?

Continuing professional development (CPD) assesses if an individual’s skills are in line with those of their peers in the same field. (Berti et al., 2021). In addition, (CPD) safeguards and improves the information and skills that professionals are required to provide to their clientele, consumers, and the community at large. This ensures that one is always current with some of the most recent trends in their area of expertise. This not only enhances the quality of life, but also keeps workers motivated to produce quality outcomes.

2.1 Distinguish between organisational conflict and misbehaviour and between informal and formal conflict.

There are individuals from different backgrounds with varying opinions, personalities, and opposing perspectives in the workplace. These elements provide a breeding ground for conflict, resulting in tension that can have a negative impact on workplace performance. Conflict in the workplace is unavoidable, and it can arise among colleagues or between the staff and management. Conflict may be disruptive or even costly to an organisation if it is not handled promptly and properly.

On the other hand, misbehaviour is a deliberate act by an employee that violates organisational and cultural norms, resulting in a system or process being disrupted (Suff, 2021). It is not uncommon for employees to commit vandalism against organisational property, theft, misappropriation of finances, deception of consumers, or sabotage of the organisation’s reputation. All of these are examples of inappropriate behaviours. There are three types of misbehaviour: type-O, which is designed to profit the organisation, such as attempting to defraud the government, type-S, which is intended to benefit the individual, and type-D, which is intended to harm the organisation. (Suff, 2021). Nonetheless, misbehaviour of any kind is costly to the employee, the government, or the firm.

Informal vs. Formal conflict

As previously mentioned, conflict is an inherent feature of any societal structure, and the workplace is no exception. However, there are occasions when conflict can be advantageous; however, it can develop and have significant ramifications for employees or the organisation when conflict is not correctly handled. Informal disputes with co-workers or superiors can be resolved fast and efficiently informally. The dispute is often resolved in its early stages; an example of a problem-solving technique utilized in such scenarios is mediation. In an informal dispute, the parties involved collaborate and maintain control over the process in order to negotiate and arrive at a workable settlement.

On the contrary, formal conflict frequently occurs when matters are beyond the control of employees, necessitating management intervention. A formal dispute necessitates an official resolution process, which includes formal documentation and investigations (Harcourt et al., 2021). When individual dialogues fail to produce results while seeking a solution, it is often the outcome of an intensified informal conflict.

3CO02 Assignment Examples

Task 1: Evidence-based Practice Presenation

AC 1.1 Define what is meant by evidence-based practice and how it is applied within organisations, providing three examples of different types of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led judgments and outcomes for an organisation.

Slide 1

Evidence-based practice is an organisational approach adopted by the human resource department, and it is focused on making effective decisions based on the available evidence in the organisation (Yoo et al., 2019) Evidence-based practice is applied within an organisation through the evaluation of evidences such as employee performance reports, organisations annual financial reports, employees’ feedback, and customer feedback. There are various ways in which the human resource department can enhance the collection of evidence, such as through using surveys, observation, or interviews.

Slide 2

Asking questions is an example of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led judgments and outcomes of an organisation. Asking questions guides in the effective identification of a challenge and creates a guideline on what the decision is focused on. For example, in the case where the organisation is facing an increased turnover rate, some questions that can be formulated include, what is the cause of employee turnover, what aspects can be enhanced to increase employee satisfaction, and what external forces might be impacting employee turnover.

Evidence analysis is the second example of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led judgments, and this entails evaluation of the available evidence in the organisation to establish the most effective decision to be made. For example, evidence generated from employee response surveys may indicate that there is ineffective communication, lack of management support, and poor working conditions. These details are then evaluated effectively by the human resource managers and create effective decisions to enhance employee satisfaction.

Evaluation of options and implementation of a decision is the third example of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led decisions. After the effective evaluation of various evidences, the human resource department creates multiple options for solutions. This needs an effective selection to enhance the implementation of decisions (Yoo et al., 2019). There are various methods in which the organisation can implement decisions, such as through pilot implementation, which entails testing out a decision through running it with the existing operating procedures to measure its effectiveness.

AC 1.2 Explain the reasons why it is important to use data to help assist organisational improvements and why this data need to be timely, ethical, and accurate.

Slide 3

It is important to use data to help assist organisational improvements as it enhances an increase in organisational productivity. The data needs to be timely, ethical, and accurate as it guides in the implementation of effective decisions. This guides in the creation of reference materials whereby organisations managers evaluate the existing organisational data and creates effective decisions, thus creating reference materials (Schildkamp, 2019). For example, the human resource department can evaluate the impact on cultural diversity in organisational production, and the data required to make effective decisions include customers surveys, employees’ feedback, and organisations financial reports.

Additionally, it is important to use data to help assist organisational improvements as it creates a point of reference. It is essential to have effective records management in an organisation that implements evidence-based practice. This creates a pool of reference whereby the human resource department is able to evaluate the data used in the creation of a given evidence. For example, in the implementation of a training and development programme in an organisation, the human resource has to document effective evidence which led to the creation of this decision and thus enhances effective organisational development.

AC 1.3 explain two different types of data measurements and information that can be used by people professionals and how they are each used to collect and collate information to support effective decision-making.

Slide 4

Nominal scale is a data measurement that can be used by people professionals to support effective decision-making, and it focuses on aspects such as gender, culture, and technology. These aspects can be used to collect data in various forms for example, in the case where the organisation is focusing on making a decision based on the implementation of strategies to enhance productivity, they should focus on the impact of the changes on gender, organisational culture or technology (Higgins, and Deeks, 2019). Adopting various technological developments guides in the increase in organisational development. Additionally, ensuring that all the nominal scale aspects are evaluated before decision making allows the organisation to avoid making ineffective decisions that might affect productivity and employees’ wellbeing.

Ordinal scale is also a data measurement that can be used by people professionals to collect information to support effective decision making. Ordinal scale focuses on a precise measure of an aspect and an example includes the financial state of an organisation, it can either be high or low. This is used to collect information on organisations’ performance through aspects such as comparing organisations’ annual financial reports over a given period of time. This provides essential evidence to guide in the effective implementation of a decision focused on enhancing financial development.

AC 1.5 Explain how organisational policies, procedures, and other forms of evidence can be used to support appropriate choices and decisions.

Slide 5

Organisational policies can be used to support appropriate decisions and choices as they create a direction in which the organisation should operate. Organisational policies are the set rules and regulations that govern the operations of an organisation. For example, a policy that focuses on employee wellness can be adopted in the implementation of evidence-based practice, such as implementing new operation procedures (Scholl et al., 2019). Through organisational policies, the human resource department will be able to evaluate if the decision made lies within the organisation’s policies to avoid the implementation of procedures that affect employee wellbeing.

Organisational policies, procedures, and other forms of evidence can be used to support appropriate choices, and it helps in creating long-term decisions. For example, when making decisions based on the recruitment and development of employees, the organisation needs to focus on future developments and changes in production and technology. This creates the need of applying organisational policies and procedures to guide in the selection f the most effective decision, which enhances flexibility without affecting organisational operations.

AC 2.1 Explain the range of internal and external customers and stakeholders that people professionals work with and the part that influencing plays within the relationships.

Slide 6

Internal customers in the organisation entail the organisational employees, and people professionals work with them in enhancing effective decision making. Influencing plays a major role in the development of employees, such as through the implementation of a training and development programme. This influences employees’ skills and behaviour in an organisation and thus are able to work effectively towards the attainment of their targets which are aligned with the organisation’s main strategic goal.

External customers are made up of organisational clients, and they play a major role in influencing people’s practice activities. Through feedback collected based on their satisfaction with the organisation’s products and services, people professionals use the information to enhance effective decision-making (Gimeno-Arias et al., 2021). Additionally, external customers determine the continued growth of the organisation by highlighting their needs, and thus people’s professionals have to adopt changes in the organisation to enhance their satisfaction.

Stakeholders are the main organisational components, and their role is to enhance effective operations to guide the organisation towards the attainment of strategic goals. Stakeholders are made up of the human resource professionals, directors, and financiers. This group influences the work of people professionals as they set targets and development requirements that guide people professionals in decision making.

AC 2.2 Explain what is meant by creating value as a people professional, and identify the benefits of providing value to customers and stakeholders.

Slide 7

Creating value as people professionals for organisational customers entails providing goods or services that match customers’ expectations and which create value for their money. The benefit of providing value to customers is that it increases customer satisfaction, thus leading to organisational development. Through customer satisfaction, people practice professionals are able to collect feedback essential in enhancing effective decision making through seeking customer feedback and recommendations (Freudenreich et al., 2020). Through the recommendations, people practice professionals can identify various opportunities which can be implemented to enhance growth.

Providing value for stakeholders entails creating an effective working environment for employees and enhancing effective management procedures which guide towards the attainment of the organisation’s strategic goals. Through providing value to stakeholders, people practice professionals enhance the creation of a development plan which guides the organisation towards the attainment of strategic goals and develops new opportunities which enhance organisational expansion.

AC 2.4 Drawing on good practice examples, explain how the work that people professionals perform benefits others within an organisation in supporting good practice, open cultures, commitment, and engagement.

Slide 8

People’s practice professionals implement evidence-based practice to benefit organisational stakeholders and support good practice, open cultures, and commitment to engagement. Decisions made in an organisation based on available evidence enhance increased sustainability and creates an aspect of reference (Freudenreich et al., 2020). Organisations stakeholders can effectively evaluate the decision made by people practice professionals and thus creating good practice and accountability.

Additionally, people practice professionals implement training and development programmes aimed at enhancing employees’ skills, and this creates benefits to employees. The training is based on predetermined development areas that people professionals have evaluated, and this enhances the development of employees’ skills contributing to effective productivity. This supports the development of good practice, open cultures, commitment, and engagement.

AC 2.3 explains how social media can be used internally and externally in workplaces to improve communication and organisational practices, highlighting the risks in a work context.

Slide 9

Social media can be used in an organisation to enhance the collection of feedback from employees and organisational customers. This enhances the creation of evidence essential in the enhancement of effective decision-making. Additionally, this method can be adopted in the organisation to enhance effective communication between employees and people practice professionals (Tajudeen et al., 2018). This saves on time as employees do not have to move from one place to the other to complete communication and thus saving of time. This aspect, however creates a risk in the effective collection of feedback as the system is accessible to a wide variety of people, and thus the data collected might be biased and lead to ineffective decision making.

AC 2.5 Outline how you can, in your own work or a voluntary role, achieve and maintain a customer-focused attitude to ensure consistent high standards and customer satisfaction.

Slide 10

In my work, I can achieve and maintain a customer-focused attitude through maintaining professionalism in the interaction with customers. This creates an effective working environment and develops trust among customers. Additionally, collecting customer feedback and recommendations is an essential aspect that guides in the enhancement of effective decision-making based on available evidence. From employees’ feedback collected, the organisation is also able to identify key challenges affecting the continued development.

TASK 2: DATA ANALYSIS

  1. Converting data into percentages
Research and designAgree or strongly agree %Neither agree nor disagree %Disagree or strongly disagree %
It’s difficult to fulfill commitments outside my work because I spend too much time on my job47.94%13.33%38.72%
The organisation provides flexi-time73.85%23.59%2.56%
I’m allowed to work from home88.97%5.12%5.89%
I’m aware that the organisation has the opportunity to job share2.31%2.05%96.41%
have scope to use my own initiative in my job role98.46%1.53%0%
I’m provided with the opportunity to develop my skills96.67%2.56%0.77%
My line manager values the work I do.77.43%10.25%12.30%
I feel secure in my job role69.23%6.67%24.10%
I’m expected to complete my work outside of my contracted hours99.48%0.25%0.25%
Absence rates in my department are low74.10%25.12%0.77%
  • Data analysis

The data provided above indicates that employees are provided with development opportunities to enhance their skills, and this has a representation of 96.67%. Employee development is essential in enhancing organisational development and improving on productivity. Employee development can be enhanced through the implementation of training and development programmes based on employees’ skills. This contributes to the development of employee morale, thus impacting positively on the organisation through increased productivity.

The data provided indicates that employees are allowed to work from home, which enhances employee flexibility. The adoption of remote working in an organisation contributes to the effective development and attainment of the organisation’s strategic goals as employees work in comfort and thus attain their targets. However, employees are expected to complete their work outside their subcontracted hours which affects employees’ morale. It is therefore essential to enhance effective allocation of tasks for employees to be able to complete within their contracted hours.

According to the data, line managers value the work done by employees and thus create a good relationship between employees and line managers. This creates an effective communication channel, and thus line managers can easily identify a challenge affecting the effective performance of duties and implement effective decisions. Additionally, employees feel secure in the work environment, which is a positive aspect of an organisation. Employee security enhances the development of employee health and well-being, thus impacting positively on organisational growth, development, and productivity.

  • Calculate how many working days are lost in a three-month period for each department based on the above figures
  • Marketing lost- 3 days in three months.
  • Administration lost – 45 working days in three months
  • Research and design lost – 45 working days in three months
  • Estimate the projected average loss of working days over a 12-month period if these rates were to continue.
  • Marketing- 1,680
  • Administration- 8,887.5
  • Research and design- 196,980
  • Total loss- 10,764.48
  • Calculate the costs of pay, assuming all absentees are contractually paid full remuneration whilst off sick during the three-month period
  • Marketing- 12,600
  • Administration- 5,625
  • Research and design- 15,750
  • Total payments-33,975

References

Freudenreich, B., Lüdeke-Freund, F. and Schaltegger, S., 2020. A stakeholder theory perspective on business models: Value creation for sustainability. Journal of Business Ethics166(1), pp.3-18.

Gimeno-Arias, F., Santos-Jaén, J.M., Palacios-Manzano, M. and Garza-Sánchez, H.H., 2021. Using PLS-SEM to Analyze the Effect of CSR on Corporate Performance: The Mediating Role of Human Resources Management and Customer Satisfaction. An Empirical Study in the Spanish Food and Beverage Manufacturing Sector. Mathematics 2021, 9, 2973.

Higgins, J.P., Li, T. and Deeks, J.J., 2019. Choosing effect measures and computing estimates of effect. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, pp.143-176.

Schildkamp, K., 2019. Data-based decision-making for school improvement: Research insights and gaps. Educational Research61(3), pp.257-273.

Tajudeen, F.P., Jaafar, N.I. and Ainin, S., 2018. Understanding the impact of social media usage among organizations. Information & Management55(3), pp.308-321.

 , I., LaRussa, A., Hahlweg, P., Kobrin, S. and Elwyn, G., 2018. Organizational-and system-level characteristics that influence implementation of shared decision-making and strategies to address them—a scoping review. Implementation Science13(1), pp.1-22.

Yoo, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Kim, J.S., Kim, H.L. and Ki, J.S., 2019. Clinical nurses’ beliefs, knowledge, organizational readiness and level of implementation of evidence-based practice: The first step to creating an evidence-based practice culture. PloS one14(12), p.e0226742.

5CO03 – Professional Behaviours and Valuing People

Define the term professional and explain what it means to be a ‘people practice professional’. (1.1)

The oxford dictionary defines a professional as “a person engaged or qualified in a profession.” To most people, “professionalism” is carrying oneself in a manner that promotes confidence in one’s abilities, dependability, and respect among one’s peers. Therefore, a professional is an individual who consistently performs at a high degree of proficiency and productivity. The greatest strength of every company is its employees, hence the need for people practise professionals. These experts understand the significance of employees in achieving organizational objectives (CIPD, 2022). Their main concern is the people practices that have an effect on the growth and administration of their personnel as a whole. They focus on the specifics of each worker to guarantee a satisfying work experience.

Knowledge, values and behaviours of people professionals.

Core Knowledge for People Professionals

When it comes to leading change, building value, and making a difference in the workplace, the CIPD Professional Map outlines six essential areas of knowledge including; business acumen, evidence-based practice, technology and people, people practice, change and Culture and behaviours (CIPD, 2022). These core knowledge areas were established through scholarly research and feedback across the people practise profession, and are based on the most up-to-date research and findings in the field of human resources (CIPD, 2022). These principles help people professionals across various industries, or areas of expertise, to increase their job performance and serve their clients better

Value of People Professionals

The core value of the people practise professionals is to advocate for enhanced working conditions as well as conditions outside of work, creating a fair, inclusive and good work environment through the design of roles, opportunities, organizations, and work conditions that inspire the best in people, leading to successful business outcomes and in consequentially, boosting economies.

Core behaviours

Scholarly research and practitioner feedback have uncovered certain thinking patterns and behaviour as essential for success in the field of human resources (CIPD, 2022). To help people professionals make a positive impact on individuals, businesses, and society at large, the CIPD Professional Map outlines eight essential actions a people professional may take (CIPD, 2022). Professional courage and influence, Valuing people, ethical practice, insights focused, situational decision-making, passion for learning, commercial drive and working inclusively (CIPD, 2022). Despite the novelty and difficulty of every given scenario, there are some perspective and behaviour that should always be adhered to. The fundamental behaviours serve this purpose by identifying the characteristics of a successful people professional in the face of a volatile and ever-changing work environment (CIPD, 2022). These practices, which were supported by academic and expert evidence represent a radical transformation for people professionals by placing a higher emphasis making decisions based on ethics and evidence

ANALYSIS AND REVIEW OF THE DATA

Slide 2

To review and evaluate data, various human resource analytical techniques are available. This section used Microsoft Excel to do a data analysis on the supplied data.There The graph below summarises employee feedback on their immediate supervisors. 250 respondents disagreed with the notion that line managers delegate authority, while 245 believed that line managers do not convey the rationale for changes and decisions. According to 219 respondents, line managers were unapproachable. The three categories listed previously had the highest percentage of respondents rating their line managers negatively. As illustrated in graph 1, the majority of respondents disapproved of their line supervisors’ most positive characteristics.

As illustrated above, a pie chart represents data as a circular graph. The pie slices represent variables that should add up to the total. For instance, 256 employees responded to questions in total. 156 employees disagreed, while 100 agreed, on the issue of line manager assistance. The graph above illustrates the percentile distribution of this data. Simple to read and comprehend, pie charts. Additionally, they visualise data as a fraction of a whole.

Customer feedback Analysis

143 respondents agreed that the packaging was adequate and effectively protected the products. 142 clients expressed dissatisfaction with the manner in which their initial inquiries were handled; 114 complained that the selection of goods and products was insufficient to fulfil their needs.

The statistics collected generally reveal a performance difference between employees and their line managers. As indicated by client feedback, the disparity impairs performance. According to the findings, line managers’ decision-making processes must include employees. Additionally, line managers should foster an organisational culture that values and appreciates its personnel.

Slide 3

According to the CIPD (2020), people data and analytics may assist human resources and other management personnel in an organisation in resolving business challenges and making choices. Numerous sorts of data are beneficial for quantifying and illuminating human behaviour. Qualitative data is based on human observation of employee behaviours, habits, skills, and other performance-related aspects. This data provides an in-depth understanding of issues as well as descriptive information about how various issues are expressed in language. Utilising techniques such as brainstorming, questionnaires, and interviews, qualitative data can be utilised to assess work and individual performance. Employee turnover can be quantified qualitatively through brainstorming groups or departure interviews.

On the other side, quantitative data illustrates performance through the use of numbers and figures. While quantitative data is more precise and reliable, it is also short-lived. Quantitative data can be utilised to construct and maintain records for weekly work hours, employee retention rates, employee count, and employee age. This information can be gathered and analysed using various human resource analytical software programmes.

Slide 4

There are different methods of representing finding through graphs. Some of the commonly used types of graphs are; Bar graphs , line graphs, histograms and pie charts. The finding of this analysis have been presented using different graphs in AC 2.1  above.

Slide 5

The process through which an organisation creates value may be affected by the need to grow and expand, the desire for a return on investment, or the desire to meet customers’ needs (Payal Sondhi, 2018). By efficiently utilising human potential, value can be created. The main goal of good people management is to add value to the company and its employees, as well as the community around them. Value can be made by making money, or by giving employees a sense of what they want to do. The value that the society gets from this could be in the form of long-term sustainability and a high-quality life. In the mission and strategy of an organisation, they write down what they want to achieve. Real business value is found in the factors that affect an organization’s business goals (Brugman and Dijk, 2020).

Apart from 360-degree feedback, there are a variety of alternative approaches and instruments for assessing the impact and value of human resource practices. Value and impact measurement are critical components of meeting corporate objectives. Additionally, it can ensure that an organisation has employees who contribute, justify spending on various human resource activities, continuously enhance employee performance, and identify organisational needs and gaps to enable educated business decisions.

The cost-benefit analysis is critical for determining which decisions should be made and which should be avoided. It is the process through which the anticipated benefits of an action are added up and then subtracted from the total cost of the action (Hayes And Anderson, 2021). For instance, all employees deemed to have performed well earned a £400.00 incentive. According to the published statistics, 245 employees are eligible for bonus payments. As a result, the corporation would spend £ 98,000.00 on bonuses in total. However, a budget of £75,000.00 was allocated. If every employee received the bonus, the organisation would have spent an additional £23,000.00.

The bonus amount should be reduced to match the budget, based on the cost-benefit analysis of the circumstance. Alternatively, different incentive programmes, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can be employed to recognise exceptional performers. Additionally, the organisation can improve performance by rewarding individuals who earn a five or six. Employees with a five-star rating may enhance their performance as a result, which affects the organisation’s performance.

Return on investment is a metric that can be used to determine the likelihood of profiting from an investment. ROI is a ratio that indicates the relationship between gains and losses, and cost. The return on investment (ROI) calculation determines the possible returns on investment. In the preceding example, the return would be negative because the budget allocation was exceeded. The return on investment is expressed as a percentage to make it more understandable.

Slide 6

AC 3.1 An explanation of the importance of achieving work-life balance with the employment relationship with an overview of the regulations relevant to work-life balance

According to Sanfilippo (2022), creating a harmonious work-life balance is critical to improving not only employees’ physical, emotional and mental well-being as well as their careers. Sanfilippo (2022) defines work-life balance as the state of equilibrium when an individual equally prioritises work and personal demands. According to CIPD (2019), poor work-life balance is one of the undermining attempts to improve job quality in the UK. Three in five (60%) employees interviewed in the CIPD (2019) survey stated that longer working hours disrupted their family life balance. There are numerous benefits associated with long working hours. The first benefit of work-life balance is that it reduces employee turnover. When employees are satisfied, they are less likely to leave their organisation. Additionally, offering flexible working options to workers makes their lives easier and results in increased productivity.

For instance, some employees are more active during the day while others are more active during the night. Thus, allowing them to work at their most suitable time will increase productivity. Furthermore, work-life balance increases staff morale. Regarding that, when employees experience a better work-life balance, they are more likely to put more effort into their job positions (IRIS 2018). Apart from work-balance initiatives offered by different regulations, there are also vital regulations relating to the same. Some key work-life balance regulations include holidays, mandatory rest periods, and maternal and paternal leaves, among many others. For instance, under the UK’s Statutory Maternity Leave, eligible employees can take up to 52 weeks of maternity leave (Gov.uk 2022). Additionally, almost all employees across the UK are legally entitled to 5.6 weeks of paid leave in a year (Gov.uk 2022).

AC 4.1 The purpose and components of performance management.

UC Berkeley (2022) defines performance management as the continuous process of communication between employee and their supervisors that occur throughout the year and in support of realising strategic objectives of a given organisation. The key objective of performance management is to ensure that employees and their teams are provided with adequate resources they require to develop, the recognition they deserve to be motivated as well as the ability to understand what is expected of them (PerformYard.com 2020). Another key purpose of performance management is reinforcing values. Regarding that, a vital key idea of to bring the organisation’s values off the wall and into a conversation between workers. To gain a deeper understanding of performance management, it is essential to highlight factors that affect individual and team performance. One of the key factors that affect individual performance is the training and development plan.

 Specifically, a training and development plan can be defined as a plan the management offers to get the most effective outcome at their workplace. Another critical factor that affects an individual or team’s performance at the workplace is workplace policies and procedures. A workplace policy is a statement that dictates how issues related to human resource management are dealt with in a particular organisation. Additionally, workplace policies communicate the company’s values and expectations of employee behaviour and performance. Informal and formal reviews also critically affect individual and team performance within an organisation. Both informal and formal reviews provide essential feedback that is vital for the success of any given organisation.

AC 6.1 Explain why learning and development activities are of benefit to individuals and organisations.

Also known as L&D, the learning and development process is a continuous process of encouraging employees’ professional development within a given organisation. In specific, learning and development entail analysing skills gaps in a particular business and developing training programmes that empower workers with particular knowledge and skills that bolster performance. Learning and development is a major role of an organisation’s HR department. Another important point to note is that learning and development take place at all levels (Beevers et al., 2019). Recent studies show that firms that engage in employee learning and development experience increased sales (Ottawa University 2021). The section below highlights training and development benefits for individuals and organisations.

One benefit of training and development to an organisation is that it aids in retaining employees. Retention is one of the major challenges for most employers. However, the problem can be solved through career development. In fact, training and development have become a critical competitive advantage when attracting top talents. In that regard, training and development aid organisations in attracting top talent. Additionally, training and development bolster employees’ productivity. On the other hand, training and development are critical in bolstering employees’ morale. In conclusion, employees who receive training report high satisfaction and are more likely to work hard in their positions (Papangelis 2021).

1. Unit Aims and Outcomes

AC 1.2 Different ways in which information for specified roles can be prepared.

The successful recruitment process uses data and evidence to make decisions in various aspects, such as identifying and recruiting the right individuals (Peopledatalabs.com 2021). There are numerous ways through which information can be collected and prepared. The first way is through a job description. This entails describing key essential elements of a given job position in a given organisation. For example, a line manager job description explains the job position’s roles and responsibilities. Another special way information for specified roles can be prepared through person specification. Specifically, it entails a detailed explanation of skills, qualifications, knowledge and experience that a particular job applicant must possess to be considered for a particular job.  The third way is through observation. This entails observing a candidate to identify their suitability for a particular job. In specific, it entails taking notes or sometimes recording a person’s activity to understand better if they are suitable for the job position. An interview or an engagement with a particular candidate is also critical in unearthing whether they are qualified for a particular job position. Lastly, information for a specified role can be obtained through background checks. Specifically, background checks help identify critical information about a particular candidate (Shrm.org 2022a). This information includes criminal records, among many others, that are critical in deciding on the candidate.

AC 2.1 Analysis of the impact of workforce planning in terms of forecasting demand for labour utilising both internal and external sources of supply.

Arguably, employee recruitment costs thousands. If a staff turns out to be the wrong fit, it costs the organisation even more. That is why it is vital to adopt effective frameworks to mitigate time and resource wastage (Kingdom.co.uk). Human resource supply forecasting is one of the most critical strategies for minimising such wastage. Human resource forecasting can be defined as the process of estimating available human resources followed by demand forecasting. Effective human resource forecasting entails an in-depth understanding of both the internal and external supply of human resources. Internal supply of human resources refers to labour that is available through employee transfers, promotions, organization’s former employees, and recall of the organisation’s former employees. On the other hand, the external supply of human resources refers to the availability of the labour force in a given market through new recruitment. Effective human resource managers understand which of the two frameworks to adopt while filling up job positions. Additionally, effective human resource managers understand factors impacting each of the above supply of human resources. For example, some of the key factors affecting the external supply of human resources include the literacy level of a nation, population rate, technological advancement, and compensation system.

AC 1.2 Connections Between Organisational Strategy, Products, Services and Customers

Organisational strategy functions as the operational engine of an entity and directs the form of actions on products, services and customers. Clarified values, a well-defined mission and an ambitious vision carry the potential of determining organisational trajectory on the three critically important elements. An organisation keen on delivering a future-proof product can immensely invest in a strong product design framework. Organisations have used the elements of concept designs, rolling out of prototypes and testing markets prior to releasing products. This tactic creates a collective mindset of preparation and facilitates a strong understanding of the market. Apple Inc has consistently employed the strategy of testing its iPhone device brand prior to actual market releases (Yan, 2016). It is this organizational strategy that has realized consistent success for the company. An organisation that understands how its products serves the customers and the market dynamics behind the product releases stands near sustainable success.

Various operating components can guide how an organisation can align its overall strategy to meet customer needs. At the apex of this framework is the need to deliver quality services and products. Mercedes, as a corporation, has consistently sold itself as an automaker keen on quality vehicles. An organisation may also carry the preference of activating a favourable pricing model to capture defined consumer demographics. Chinese phone companies deliver affordably priced devices to Asian and African markets managing to carve out a strong niche on the basis of their pricing models. Creating extremely amazing customer experience frameworks has raised the performance portfolio of organisations around the world. A 2022 report by Forbes on companies focusing on exemplary customer services indicated that Starbucks rose as the best restaurant brand in 2022 due to its dynamic customer service approach (Morgan, 2022). The value of customer service operations amplifying brand values cuts across all sectors around the world.

Every organization’s operating model should be in structured in a manner that allows its to keep up with an evolving strategy. Nokia can qualify as one of the commercial institutions around the world that failed to have its operating model answer to evolving consumer needs (Atmar, Becdach, Kleinman and Rieckhoff, 2019). The organizational pace in evaluating overall strategy should remain in clear consideration of surrounding internal factors for the purpose of eliminating confusion and creating disconnection.

AC 2.3 Examples of how you have recognised and accepted your own mistakes, and how you have recognised others’ mistakes whilst showing them empathy. (Approximately 300 words)

When I was still new at my position in my current organisation. I encountered a rather heated disagreement between two employees which escalated very quickly to becoming physical and eventually resulted in a medical emergency. As the HR I was tasked with finding the root cause of the problem before carrying out a conflict resolution procedure. However, before listening to both sides of the story to a make critical and informed decision I was quick to dismiss one employee giving him a 2 weeks unpaid suspension. The employee furious for the unfair dismissal threatened to sue the firm. Luckily the matter was handled quickly before it escalated to a lawsuit. I was mandated to carry out a serious investigation on the matter where I discovered the employee was only a victim of bullying because he recently received a promotion that the other employee was eyeing. I apologised and called off the suspension immediately. I learned a very important lessons on the purpose of conducting investigations and employing critical thinking prior to making serious decisions that will impact others.

One employee was consistently coming late to work and despite receiving several warning she would not change her habit. Since the warning has become many I decided to call her to the office to have a face-to-face conversation. Although she insisted that everything was okay I pursued further informing her that anything she brought forward would not be held against her. She opened up that her daughter was sick and her salary was not enough to cover both their basic needs and hospital bills for the company insurance did not cover everything. She had requested her line manager for extra shifts but her request was ignored hence she was forced to look for a night job hence why she is always late to work. Although it was her mistake I felt the organisation was partly to blame and hence went through the right channels to help her.

Task Two – Self Reflective Journal

AC 2.4 At the beginning of your journal, summarise different ways a people practice professional can upgrade their knowledge and skills and stay up-to-date with developments in the people profession and wider world of work. This might be informal methods such as discussion and reading through to formal research and development methods (approximately 300 words)

To be effective in their roles, human resources professionals must be curious about what’s occurring both inside and outside their firms. Strategic decision-making is difficult if people professionals have no idea of what is going on within the company, how well the organisation competes in its sector, and how it’s all being affected from a global context (Thite, 2022). Therefore, possessing a passion for learning guarantees that people professionals are always at the cutting edge of knowledge and practice, allowing us to capitalize on opportunities, foster innovation, and find fulfilment and purpose.

Ways a People Practice Professional can upgrade their knowledge and skills;

Online platforms: To pursue a professional credential at this time may not be the best course of action. However other resources can be found on the internet. For instance, it is possible to learn many software, creative and commercial skills through video courses on LinkedIn Learning (Thite, 2022). Even if recognition and accreditation are important factors to consider while making a decision, there are many choices to choose from.

Pursuing a new qualification: There are several benefits to returning to class to progress a career.  Numerous professional organisations offer certifications geared toward employees. One can choose to study with CIM, CIPD, or ACCA (Dirani et al., 2020). Possessing a certification on your CV shows that one has attained a particular level in their field. It is quite beneficial especially when applying for a new position at work or simply changing professions. It is common for organizations to foot some of the bill for their employees.

Ensuring that my skills are up-to-date is among the best ways of keeping up with the ever-changing needs of my profession. Therefore, I often embark on a personal journey to determine the skills would need improvement before putting together an action plan. One of my action plans to upgrade my skills was to pursue CIPD courses where I began with Level 3 and hope to go all the way to Level 7.

AC 2.3 Examples of how you have recognised and accepted your own mistakes, and how you have recognised others’ mistakes whilst showing them empathy. (Approximately 300 words)

When I was still new at my position in my current organisation. I encountered a rather heated disagreement between two employees which escalated very quickly to becoming physical and eventually resulted in a medical emergency. As the HR I was tasked with finding the root cause of the problem before carrying out a conflict resolution procedure. However, before listening to both sides of the story to a make critical and informed decision I was quick to dismiss one employee giving him a 2 weeks unpaid suspension. The employee furious for the unfair dismissal threatened to sue the firm. Luckily the matter was handled quickly before it escalated to a lawsuit. I was mandated to carry out a serious investigation on the matter where I discovered the employee was only a victim of bullying because he recently received a promotion that the other employee was eyeing. I apologised and called off the suspension immediately. I learned a very important lessons on the purpose of conducting investigations and employing critical thinking prior to making serious decisions that will impact others.

One employee was consistently coming late to work and despite receiving several warning she would not change her habit. Since the warning has become many I decided to call her to the office to have a face-to-face conversation. Although she insisted that everything was okay I pursued further informing her that anything she brought forward would not be held against her. She opened up that her daughter was sick and her salary was not enough to cover both their basic needs and hospital bills for the company insurance did not cover everything. She had requested her line manager for extra shifts but her request was ignored hence she was forced to look for a night job hence why she is always late to work. Although it was her mistake I felt the organisation was partly to blame and hence went through the right channels to help her.

AC 2.5 Continue your journal with ongoing reflections on your performance and development. (Approximately 400 words)

My soft skills on communication and teamwork really needed a boost especially when I became a senior HR in my organisation. It is because unlike my previous role I would be handling more project and acting as a bridge not only between management and employees but management and the consumers as well. Upon commencing with my CIPD course I became aware of how to effectively employ communication and critical thinking to a situation. This was quite useful in saving a marketing issue that occurred at the firm almost costing us out top consumer and some investors. When the situation occurred, I was quick to work with the public relations team, the marketing team and to resolve the matter and keep our customers and investors. Although the matter caused the firm some money, we saved more than what we lost and that was a win.

In my previous organisation, I was not just responsible with people practises but I was also responsible with dealing with payrolls for the organisation did not have an accounting department. Since I was fresh from college I did not have a lot of skills and competencies as I had more theoretical than practical knowledge. Hence when presented with the payroll software to handle matters sprawled out of control as I failed to make correct calculations and ended up giving some employees more and others less compensation than they deserved. This resulted in a lot of commotion after the salary was released with people complaining having salary deductions while others got raises. I was so overwhelmed and had to receive a lot of help to get the issue fixed. The matter wasted a lot of time and money too. Afterwards I decided to enrol into an accounting class so that I could better fit into my rolls in the organisation.

This reflective journal has been both enlightening and encouraging. It has acted as a reminder as to why I need to put more effort in improving my skills and knowledge to offer optimal performance at work. On the other hand it has really encouraged me reminding me how far I have come in my career journey and the mistakes I used to make and how I moved passed them. At some point I felt useless and in the wrong path but frequent reflection and planning has helped me understand that all it takes is learning for growth to occur.

References

Thite, M. (2022). Digital human resource development: where are we? Where should we go and how do we go there?. Human Resource Development International25(1), 87-103.

Dirani, K. M., Abadi, M., Alizadeh, A., Barhate, B., Garza, R. C., Gunasekara, N., … & Majzun, Z. (2020). Leadership competencies and the essential role of human resource development in times of crisis: a response to Covid-19 pandemic. Human Resource Development International23(4), 380-394.

AC1.2 An explanation of an organisation’s business goals and why it is important for organisations to plan for how they will achieve these

SLIDE 8

The aims and ambitions of an organization are referred to as its organisational objectives, and these goals can be broken down into more specific objectives. The goal of the company is what keeps it moving forward and determines the kind of direction it will head in not only to become more competitive in the market but also to bring in and keep current customers as well as increase its overall market share. It is essential to make a plan and devise a strategy for how the organization’s objectives will be accomplished. Planning plays a significant role in ensuring that staff comprehends the nature of their responsibilities to ensure that risks are minimized or completely erased, responsibilities are assigned to skilled and talented individuals, the upscale of safety standards in addition to setting ,monitoring and step by step evaluation (Thobela, 2020).

Organisation Planning is of great significance in determining when to execute certain policies and how to ensure their full implementation to maximize on the rewards. Planning also permits control to be exercised where necessary to prevent misallocation of resources.

Activity 2 - Self Assessment

2.1 Self-Assessment using Professional Map Standard

Profession Map StandardPerform well Score 30Perform satisfactorily Score 20Requires further development Score 10Reason for judgement
Make responsible choices about your work, applying professional principles and values 20 My work performance has been exceptional. I’ve encountered numerous circumstances where an individual would be tempted to abandon their work ethics. I did, however, reassure myself of the ethical commitment I made when I joined the team. Respect is always valued by individuals from all walks of life. Work may present me with a small problem-solving challenge with ethical considerations.
Consider the purpose and implications of actions, decisions and people practices for all stakeholders 20 In both non-profit and for-profit organisations, every choice has consequences. Long-term gains and losses are possible outcomes of corporate decisions. All decisions affecting my coworkers will have an immediate effect on me. To achieve success, I must get a deeper understanding of how to include other staff members in my decision-making strategy.
Raise concerns about people practices and policies which are not consistent with values or legislation 20 After spending quality time in the HR department, I’ve developed a number of concerns about the fact that I’ve been here for a while now. Using one’s employer’s property for personal gain is a common occurrence. My managers used to give me orders, but more recently, I’ve been compelled to express my concerns about various workplace difficulties.
Provide explanations and reasons for the choices you make and the advice you provide 20 My one and only objective is to strengthen our position for the truth and our capacity to fight for what is right, even if this does not have a positive impact on the people or the organization. I will make it a priority to put into practice the many diverse hypotheses that do research on the factors that I find compelling.
Demonstrate professionalism and consistency in what you say and do in order to build trust   Since day one, I’ve made it a priority to care deeply about my colleagues and the other employees within the company. Compassion, trustworthiness, and respect are three fundamental characteristics that have been the driving forces behind my success in life. To succeed professionally, It is essential that my deeds and my words be in agreement with one another at all times. Your confidence in me will help me do a better job in the long run.

The self-analysis was done with reference to the Core behaviour, that is, moral conduct. At work, I always make judgments based on my professional ideas and principles, and I never hesitate to voice my concerns about procedures or practices that I believe run counter to the law or values. In addition, I build a culture of trust among my co-workers by demonstrating consistency and competence in my beliefs. In addition, I completed the official assessment, which enabled me to view my progress through the eyes of my superiors. According to formal assessment, professionalism is my greatest strength, whereas interpersonal communication skills are the areas I need to improve on. In addition, I understood that I lacked ethically sound decision-making abilities. In order to develop great working ties, I must also possess a pleasant manner. As a result, I developed a personal development plan to assess my current abilities and determine how I might improve and expand them. Several learning opportunities exist within the company for me to solve the highlighted concerns. Throughout the entire process, though, my management and co-workers were incredibly supportive of my learning experience.

What do I want/need to learn?What will I do to achieve this?What resources or support will I need?What will my success criteria be?Target dates for review and completion
Decision-making skillsParticipating in meetings while being supervised by more experienced members of the team.Reports and suggestions from colleaguesTo execute successful business plans and undertake required measures3 months
Interpersonal skillsAttending seminars and taking part in group activitiesSupport from co-workers and feedback from customersEstablishing productive associations2.5 months
Communication SkillsImproving one’s ability to interact with other individualsOnline seminars, support from peers, and trainingProviding employees with ethical values in an effective way2 months

Section 2

Explain the principles of legislation relating to dismissal in respect of capability and misconduct issues

According to UK laws, every employee has the right to a fair and just dismissal. There are five possible reasons for dismissal under the 1996 Employment Rights Act: capability, conduct, redundancy, a legal basis, or any other substantial reason (Employment law| CIPD, n.d). However, while the aforementioned are causes for dismissal, to guarantee fair treatment of the process and in case of misconduct or capability difficulties, the employer must manage the matters per the ACAS Code of Practice on disciplinary and grievance procedures (Employment law| CIPD, n.d). Failure to comply with the stated guidelines could result in a claim of wrongful dismissal from the employee even if the reason for termination were valid. Some of the principles of legislation relevant to dismissal include;

Fairness: Dismissal must be fair and reasonable, even if it falls under one of the five possible reasons for dismissal listed by the employer.

Investigation: If not handled correctly, dismissal is a critical issue that could lead to litigation. Because of this, managers must perform investigations before deciding that dismissal is the best option (Employment law| CIPD, n.d.).

Following a fair procedure: To ensure a fair dismissal, employers must abide by the Acas code of practice. If employers don’t, they could end up in front of an employment tribunal, where they would have to compensate the employee.

AC 3.2 Analyse Key Causes of Employee Grievances

Employees face various situations at work that make them unhappy and dissatisfied. Any concern that is not addressed or addressed promptly grows into a grievance, especially employees feel unheard or ignored. Various situations can result in a grievance, from a hostile work atmosphere to bullying. Bridging informal psychological contracts has been a common cause of job grievances. A study conducted by (Baillien et al., 2018) highlighted that occurrences of manager-instigated workplace bullying tend to rise during times of organisational transformation. The study indicated that this sense of increased bullying was primarily attributable to the fact that organisational change typically produces breaches in the psychological contract (Baillien et al., 2018). Depending on the manager, employees may be required to work varying hours or different methods. The psychological contract is breached since an expectation regarding behavior and what one can and cannot do alters. Employee grievances can be grouped as follows

Poor working conditions: A negative work environment can have a negative impact on an employee’s happiness and productivity. Another major cause of employee dissatisfaction is the lack of suitable equipment, tools, and safety gear.

Inconsistent wages and salaries; Grievances are likely to occur if employees are not adequately compensated for their efforts. Employees who feel undervalued may complain if their pay isn’t equivalent to that of their peers (Joyce et al., 2020).

Discrimination: Organisational personnel may express their discontent if they perceive unfairness in the workplace, such as when promotions are based on gender or race rather than merit.

AC 3.3 Explain the skills required for effective grievance and discipline-handling procedures.

If a manager isn’t careful, grievances can spiral out of control if they are not dealt with constructively. It is preferable to acknowledge that there is an issue within the company than to ignore the fact that workers are dissatisfied or unhappy with their work (Joyce et al., 2020). One employee’s grievance can turn into two or more if a manager doesn’t take it seriously, leading to a chain reaction of complaints. The rumours of strikes at Makite solutions stemmed from employees’ perceptions that their complaints had not been acknowledged or taken seriously. To effectively handle grievances, a manager must possess strong listening skills. Finding a solution is nearly impossible if a manager does not listen to the employee’s complaints. Hence, they should have the ability to listen without bias, even to those whose views differ from theirs. They should also show an understanding of the company’s needs in relation to the employee’s complaints. Finally, they must have the ability to speak clearly and honestly with others without demeaning or disparaging the other person, which is essential.

AC 3.4 Advise on the importance of handling grievances effectively

The primary goals of developing an effective complaint process at the workplace include allowing employees to vent their grievances to management, clarifying the nature of the grievance, and investigating potential causes of dissatisfaction. This process also strives to find quick solutions to issues it raises and takes appropriate action. Employees are informed of their rights to escalate grievances, especially when a problem emerges within the workplace environment.

Once an employee files a complaint, the management ought to respond immediately and efficiently. Indeed managing complaints may be both challenging and time-consuming. Hence, any delay in addressing and resolving a complaint will exacerbate the situation, as it may result in unfavourable publicity that can occur due to poor employee grievance management within organisations. The negative publicity causes a loss in the client base, thereby affecting revenue. Additionally, it might result in financial issues and a considerable decline in market value due to eroding client loyalty.

According to Mukiira (2020), managing workplace grievances aids in the establishment of various workplace norms and codes that promote employment relations. The ideal way of addressing grievances is through addressing them as soon as they arise and handling them promptly with the help of an immediate supervisor. Managing employee grievances stands to benefit both employees and the organisation. Employees are encouraged to express their concerns without fear of retaliation when grievances are handled effectively. It also prevents minor workplace disagreements from escalating into more heated arguments and provides a quick and equitable mechanism for dealing with such grievances. It saves the organisations money and time by identifying and implementing solutions to issues that emerge at the workplace. Grievance handling processes contribute to the development of a coherent organisational atmosphere built on honesty and openness, hence enhancing the employee-employer relationship.

Task Two – Advisory Briefing Note

2.1 Distinguish between organisational conflict and misbehaviour and between informal and formal conflict.

There are individuals from different backgrounds with varying opinions, personalities, and opposing perspectives in the workplace. These elements provide a breeding ground for conflict, resulting in tension that can have a negative impact on workplace performance. Conflict in the workplace is unavoidable, and it can arise among colleagues or between the staff and management. Conflict may be disruptive or even costly to an organisation if it is not handled promptly and properly.

On the other hand, misbehaviour is a deliberate act by an employee that violates organisational and cultural norms, resulting in a system or process being disrupted (Suff, 2021). It is not uncommon for employees to commit vandalism against organisational property, theft, misappropriation of finances, deception of consumers, or sabotage of the organisation’s reputation. All of these are examples of inappropriate behaviours. There are three types of misbehaviour: type-O, which is designed to profit the organisation, such as attempting to defraud the government, type-S, which is intended to benefit the individual, and type-D, which is intended to harm the organisation. (Suff, 2021). Nonetheless, misbehaviour of any kind is costly to the employee, the government, or the firm.

Informal vs. Formal conflict

As previously mentioned, conflict is an inherent feature of any societal structure, and the workplace is no exception. However, there are occasions when conflict can be advantageous; however, it can develop and have significant ramifications for employees or the organisation when conflict is not correctly handled. Informal disputes with co-workers or superiors can be resolved fast and efficiently informally. The dispute is often resolved in its early stages; an example of a problem-solving technique utilized in such scenarios is mediation. In an informal dispute, the parties involved collaborate and maintain control over the process in order to negotiate and arrive at a workable settlement.

On the contrary, formal conflict frequently occurs when matters are beyond the control of employees, necessitating management intervention. A formal dispute necessitates an official resolution process, which includes formal documentation and investigations (Harcourt et al., 2021). When individual dialogues fail to produce results while seeking a solution, it is often the outcome of an intensified informal conflict.

2.2 Distinguish between official and unofficial employee action.

When conflicts arise in an organisation, management ensures that they are addressed and that they do not escalate. Numerous issues contributing to organisational conflicts and grievances include a need for improved working conditions, unfulfilled collective bargaining rights, and increased remuneration (Harcourt et al., 2021). When an organisations’ staff seek to air their issues, and none are resolved peacefully to the satisfaction of both parties, they may take formal or informal action.

A trade union formally supports an official employee action, and union members participate, such as official strikes. Over the years, workers have formed and joined trade unions in order to safeguard their interests as employees. Under official actions, trade unions intervene on behalf of their members in order to negotiate and reach a settlement (Harcourt et al., 2021). The only time action is taken is when a solution cannot be found. These official actions must be carried out in accordance with legal procedures to guarantee that the action is protected.

Unofficial action, on the other hand, is not protected. Employees may opt for go-slows if their issues are not addressed without the support of trade unions. However, because unofficial actions are not safeguarded, employees risk the possibility of being dismissed. (Harcourt et al., 2021). Employee actions, both official and unofficial, have a negative impact on workplace performance. As a result, it is critical for management to respond quickly to workplace issues and disputes before they escalate to the point of resulting in employee actions.

2.4 Distinguish between third-party conciliation, mediation, and arbitration.

Third Third-party dispute resolution entails appointing a neutral person to assist the two disputing parties in reaching an agreement. Third-party conflict resolution is more prevalent at organisational levels when conflicting employees can engage a co-worker to reach an agreement. Third-party conflict resolution agreements are not legally binding, making them difficult to employ in collective bargaining. The conciliator’s role is to assist the two disputing parties toward agreement on various issues without enforcing any choices. This strategy is more appropriate when the two parties share a high level of trust.

Mediation is a cost-effective method of resolving dispute in which two disputing parties hire a mediator to help them through the procedure (Findlaw, 2021). The mediator is actively engaged in identifying areas of disagreement and assisting the parties in resolving them in a step-by-step fashion. Mediation is not legally enforceable and is conducted in good faith by the parties in order to obtain a desired agreement. The procedure can be utilized in both individual dispute resolution and collective bargaining of trade unions.

Arbitration is a form of conflict resolution that is mostly utilized when the two parties in disagreement are unable to come to an agreement and require the assistance of third parties to interpret choices and render judgments. In arbitration, the two parties relinquish their decision-making authority and rely on the arbitrators to render a ruling that obligates them to comply. Arbitration is more frequently employed in collective bargaining and, on occasion, when parties are unable to reach an agreement.

4.1 Explain the main provisions of collective employment law.

The collective employment law was enacted to permit the existence of trade unions and to provide employees with the option of joining labour organisations. The law protects employees’ right to join any union of their choosing without fear of retaliation from their employers (Oxford reference, 2021). Employees have the freedom under the law to join as many unions as they want during their employment period with any firm. As per the collective employment law, employees in any organisation with at least 21 individuals and a membership of at least 10 workers can form a trade union. Trade unions are obligated by law to protect their members in negotiations, dispute resolution, and collective bargaining negotiations. Employers must consult with trade unions during redundancies and the transfer of undertakings to ensure fairness and adherence to agreements, as per the legislation.

In collective bargaining, the decisions made by trade unions on behalf of the employees are legally binding and reflect the choices made by the members themselves. Under the collective employment law, employers are required to adhere to the collective bargaining agreement terms. In the event that organisations breach agreements, trade unions can bring legal action against them for compensation. Under collective employment law, employees have the right to join in industrial action set up by the trade unions of which they are members. According to the legislation, trade unions are required to follow the law and any pending court injunctions in the event of industrial action. Aside from that, the legislation protects employees from being victimized by their employers when they are participating in industrial actions.

4.2 Compare the types of employee bodies, union and non-union forms of employee representation

Employee representation comes in two forms, either individual or group representation. Union or non-union organisations both offer representation providing both formal and informal interactions between the two sides of the industry. While both have their similarities and distinctions, they both strive to provide employees with a forum in which they can air their concerns, express their ideas, and provide feedback on potential organisational changes that probably affects them. One similarity between union and non-union employee representation is that an employee has the legal ability to choose any between the two as their representative when voicing issues at meetings (Trade Union & Industrial Action Q&As| CIPD, n.d). Another similarity is that group issues can use both non-union and union representations. One significant difference between the two employee representations is that the non-union representation is often preferred for employees’ needs and wants that are ‘small matters.’ However, union representations are preferred when the issues are more legally binding such as redundancy. Another difference is that issues dealt with union representations often require the involvement of staff management, while non-union representations may or may not require management involvement. 

4.3 Evaluate the purpose of collective bargaining and how it works.

Collective bargaining is the process by which employees negotiate contracts with their employers through their unions to improve working conditions such as benefits, compensation, vacation, working hours, safety, and health standards. Collective bargaining is the most effective method of resolving workplace disputes and raising workers’ wages. It enables union members to earn greater earnings, receive better benefits, and work in safer conditions than non-union employees.

Collective bargaining fosters employee-employer cooperation since it is the most effective way to preserve positive relations among co-workers, particularly during times of labour unrest. Collective bargaining empowers employees to safeguard their interests against employer exploitation, as it always imposes some constraints on employers. Due to the fact that all employees are treated equally, such collaboration with employers helps prevent unilateral action.

Collective bargaining, from a government perspective, precludes authorities from exercising force against the working class by establishing an acceptable agreement between employer and employee. Collective bargaining resolves labour disputes while promoting industrial peace without resorting to force. Thus, collective bargaining is one of the most effective means of resolving disputes between employers and employees in a peaceful manner, thereby promoting increased productivity and industrial peace. The basic objective of collective bargaining is to enhance the relationship between employees and management, hence guaranteeing industry stability.

AC 1.2 Evaluate Micro-and Macro-Analysis Tools that can be used in Human Resource practice to Investigate an Organisation's Micro and Macro Environment and How those Discovered can be used to Diagnose Future Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities.

Internal and external factors affect every organisation. These aspects are all part of the broader organisational environment, and their effects on the firm should be evaluated. In people practice, various tools are employed, including strategy reviews, future state analyses, SWOT analyses, Ansoff matrix analyses, and Fishbone analyses.There are various ways to evaluate an organisation’s micro and macro environments, they include : Observations, interviews, job analysis, work sampling, and the use of questionnaires.

The micro-environment of an organisation refers to the primary factors or environment in which it operates. These elements or environments include suppliers, consumers, competitors, and stakeholders (Summer, 2019). These are internal factors that can have an effect on an organisation. Microenvironments can be evaluated using microanalysis methodologies such as Porter’s five forces analysis. On the other hand, the macro-environment refers to the broader forces that affect enterprises (Summer, 2019). Macro-environments are external elements that have an effect on an organisation’s activities and production but are beyond its control. Economic difficulties, political forces, technical breakthroughs, ecological and physical phenomena, and legal factors contribute to the macroenvironment. The PESTLE analysis tool is an illustration of a tool used to analyse macro-environmental factors.

The SWOT analysis tool assesses both internal and external issues affecting an organisation. SWOT analysis is a strategic planning technique that identifies a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (Summer, 2019). While strengths and weaknesses are concerned with the organisation’s internal workings, threats and opportunities are concerned with external issues that may affect the organisation. The SWOT analysis is a straightforward process that can be utilised by businesses entering new markets.

Michael Porter developed Porter’s five analysis method for assessing and evaluating a business’s competitive strength (Bruijl, 2018). The approach is based on five concepts and can be used to evaluate an organisation’s microenvironment. Porter identified five forces: negotiating power of buyers, the threat of entrance, bargaining power of suppliers, competition from rivals, and threats from replacements.

As the acronym implies, the PESTLE study examines political, economic, social, technical, legal, and environmental concerns (Downey, 2007). Political variables such as trade restrictions and policies and diplomatic difficulties are likely to affect an organisation’s performance. It is critical to note that organisations are governed by laws and regulations developed by trade unions and other regulating agencies in the UK. As a result, the human resources department is responsible for ensuring that the organisation adheres to all applicable requirements. Additionally, human resources should be kept up to date on regulatory developments that may affect an organisation.

The state of the economy is a significant external factor influencing any firm. Human resources should monitor changes in economic trends as a result of global financial instability. Organisations are directly affected by economic issues such as inflation, demand and supply, interest rates, and currency exchange rates (Friedman, 2013). Human resources should inform management of current economic trends in order to prepare them for future developments. The availability of a workforce can affect an organisation’s effectiveness on a social level. Human resources are accountable for developing a recruiting strategy that attracts the finest personnel to perform organisational functions. Technological factors include the influence of adopting new technology, which may need personnel reductions or recruitment. Human resources are responsible for advising management on essential modifications to ensure that technological advancements benefit the organisation and that the organisation retains a technologically savvy staff (Friedman, 2013).

Legal aspects include rules and regulations that affect how individuals conduct themselves. Human resource professionals should ensure that the organisation and its existing policies and procedures adhere to all applicable regulatory standards in the country (Friedman, 2013). The final ‘E’ in the PESTLE tool stands for environmental elements, which allude to a naturally occurring element that may affect how individuals behave. Global market forces are compelled to comply with sustainable development goals. The Human Resources department’s responsibility is to guarantee that the organisation complies with all applicable laws and incorporates environmental sustainability policies into daily operations.

Question 8

Explain how the management of people tends to vary depending on whether a labour market is tight or loose. Illustrate your answer with examples from your own observations and your reading.

Introduction

The macroeconomic context serves as an important indicator of labour market activity, which in turn defines the scope of how organisations hire, engage, and develop their employees in accordance with the overall organisational objectives. HR professionals who are aware of the different interconnected aspects that exist within this dynamic will be better equipped to monitor potential developments and adjust to changes with more agility. The key economic terminology and guidelines covered under this unit including economic cycles, stability, growth and inflation. The economic conditions create the context for day-to-day business, ultimately determining how many employees organisations must hire, engage, and develop in order to meet client demand.

Measuring Economy

The term “economy” refers to a variety of interactions that aid in the allocation of physical and human resources to the manufacturing, distribution, and consumption of the various commodities and services that consumers desire or require (De Pascale et al., 2021). The price of products and services or their market value is determined by a combination of the relative demand for these products and services and the comparative supply of the resources required to manufacture them. Adding the market values of all goods produced provides an overall assessment of the economy’s size. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the most often used metric in economics. A market is not the only setting where products, services, and activities of monetary worth can be bought and sold. Assessments of the value of certain non-marketed activities, such as provision of public services, are included in GDP, however other activities, such as the ones that involves caregiving and work done at home, are not quantified in anyway (De Pascale et al., 2021).

The percentage change in gross domestic product (GDP) during a certain period, such as a year or a quarter, is an indicator of economic expansion. This is a critical economic statistic since it indicates the rate at which national income is increasing or decreasing over time. The output level of an economy is limited by consumer demand for goods and services and the availability of resources such as land, capital, energy, and labour. Output levels are also dependent on how effectively these inputs are utilised to create goods and services valued by customers or clients of public services – this is referred to as the economy’s productivity. GDP per hour worked is a critical indicator of labour productivity.

According to economics theory, in order to enhance productivity, organisations should constantly assess their operations to ensure that they can utilize innovative procedure in the implementation of new ideas, technology and software, new sources of labour, and innovative methods of structuring their operations. Increased employee involvement is also necessity for increased productivity.

Economic growth and inflation

There is a limitation to the level of GDP that a nation may attain within a specific timeframe. This is known as potential GDP, and it represents the economy’s ability to supply products and services. Hence, It is likely that if demand for goods and services surpasses potential GDP, there will be upward pressure on prices and costs, which would lead to a rise in the overall rate of inflation. However, if there are significant changes in the commodities that the United Kingdom imports (such as gas), inflation can rise or fall regardless of the balance of demand and supply in the country (Mishchenko et al., 2018).

Potential GDP is determined by a number of factors: The following are some of the factors that determine the potential GDP:

  • The amount of work that employees are capable and willing to accomplish, which will be determined by human resource availability.( The population size, the number of people who can or want to work, and the number of hours they work are all factors to consider.).
  • The quantity of physical capital (machinery, equipment, computers, etc) that individuals use in their daily lives.
  • The level of competence that people employ in their work that empowers them to generate more with each hour of labour.
  • The degree of knowledge and technology that increases the quality of physical capital used by employees in their work.
  • A set of strategies, including human resource practices and extended team leadership, that enable individuals to generate more in each hour of labour.

Any change in any of these variables will have an impact on potential GDP. Given that there is usually an underlying (Positive) shift in either all or each variable, potential GDP has a tendency to increase over time. This underlying pace at which the economy is changing over time is referred to as the trend rate of economic growth, which is also known as the sustainable growth rate.

AC 1.2 Differentiate between employee involvement and employee participation and how it builds relationships

Employee involvement and employee participation are critical to an organisation’s productivity. These two are often confused when it comes to their definitions, with many assuming that they are similar to one another. However, it should be noted that while both are important and aid in the growth of an organisation, the two concepts are distinct. Employee involvement refers to how employers allow their employees to participate in the day-to-day operations of their company (Hodgikinson, 2018). Individual employees can contribute to the smooth running of the company. On the other hand, employee participation entails how employees get involved in the decision-making process, often through representation. Both employee participation and employee involvement are beneficial to the organisation since they touch on the core aspect of the company, that is, the employees. In a company with active employee involvement ad participation, productivity rises because of happier workers and better employee relations. The organisation benefits from a low turnover rate, thus retaining its top people and preserving continuity due to high employee satisfaction.   Customer satisfaction and the organisation’s ability to respond promptly to market shifts are also guaranteed

Write a 1000 word briefing paper for your senior management team on how your organisation’s HR / L&D functions might usefully partner with either a major customer or a major supplier to share good practice in respect of a current challenge.

Yoghoyogho  is a European food company specializing in strained yogurt. The company has recently been experiencing issues with customer satisfaction where many of its customers have complained about issues in the quality of products they produce. Some have also complained of mislabelling and a change in flavours which has resulted in decreased sales. The company has suffered major loses which have consequently led to major layoffs and low staff morale that further affected the organisations strategy. To reverse this situation the HR and LD department hopes to work and in hand with Green World whole foods to derive quick and effective solutions to salvage the situation before it has any further impacts to the organisation’s profitability.  Research indicates that a company that succeeds in streamlining the customer experience into the company culture is likely to experience a 10 – 12% increase in its revenue as the customers are happy with the products or services (Bahadur et al., 2018, p102). While this issue can be handled by the customer experience team, further research has indicated that great customer experience comes about with employee engagement hence why the Human Resources team must be on board in assisting Yoghoyogho company raise its revenue and increase customer and employee satisfaction. Below are some of the areas where the HR team in cooperation with the customer experience team can work with the organisation’s major customer Green World Whole foods to achieve the organisational goals.

Linking customer feedback and employee engagement

In 2016, the Dorchester Hotel which is one of UK’s Best Luxury hotel scooped two awards at the Distinction in Talent Management at the HR Distinction Awards and the Best UK Luxury Hotel Brand at the British Travel Awards. These achievements were as a result of their successful collaboration of the HR and people teams with the customer experience teams (Bahadur et al., 2018, p105). Yoghoyogho should consider employing a similar tactic to rebuild its brand. Almost 35% of the company’s products are purchased Green World Wholefoods therefore with the help of Green World the customer service teams can collect information on areas that need improving and areas that might be scrapped of completely or areas that could be introduced to the brand.

Research has shown that companies that liked their customer experience with employee engagement reported an improvement in their customer experience while 75% indicated that it also led to a highly motivated staff (Ahmed et al., 2020). Almost six out of ten organizations also claimed it helped them to obtain awareness into activities that directly relate to business objectives, and more than half said it enabled them to bridge excellent customer experiences to engaged staff. Sharing customer experience and staff engagement data could provide customer experience teams with a range of new opportunities (Ahmed et al., 2020). Total Fitness is one such organisation which has experienced success upon linking customer experience to employee engagement. Before applying the strategy the company, like Yoghoyogho, suffered from low staff morale and there were a lot of layoffs. At the onset of the strategy the organisation had an NPS score of -31 rose to 4 in 2 years of implementation which was 9 points above industry average (Wikhamn, 2019, p107)  .

This technique would be helpful to the Human Resource team to link the customer feedback to employee engagement. Improving employee engagement and customer experience in tandem rather than treating them as separate silos might be key to increasing the company’s productivity, sales and revenue. Upon improvement and rebranding of products, Net Promoter Score is one of the effective measures the customer service can use to track the customer loyalty (Bahadar et al., 2018). Since customer experience is linked to employee engagement, a number of initiatives can be applied alongside the customer feedback to encourage employee output. From long experience in People management, often low staff morale is due to lack of employee engagement and lack of motivation. Therefore, these initiatives should work to improve these two areas.

 To begin with, since the organisation aims to introduce a few changes, it is important that before the decision is made employees are consulted to offer feedback. It can be done through the reintroduction of weekly meetings which can later switch to biweekly once the implementation process is complete (Bahadar et al., 2018). Furthermore, with the current layoffs and increased turnover rate, the organisation should consider employing a rewards system in place to motivate the employees and help retain the human skills (Jawaad  et al, 2019). Since the organisation is currently not fit to have monetary rewards, it can start by introducing non-monetary award but gradually progress into offering monetary rewards when the profits start to improve. Employees who are motivated are organisations biggest assets as they share common goals with the organisation and hence will drive the organisation towards success.

Consumerization of HR

Other than cooperating with the customer experience teams the Human resource department can also coordinate with the marketing department to ensure that there is flow of information both internally and externally. The organisation is seeking to rebrand based on the feedback it will receive from Green World. Marketing department is important in the process as misbranding and change of flavours has been some of the issues that have resulted to poor sales. Therefore, the customers must be informed on the changes coming in. Consumerisation of HR is popular term that has been used to imply the additional roles of Human Resources beyond recruitment, engagement and development (Dechawatanapaisai, 2018).  Currently organisations have come to understand that branding not only focuses on marketing and that employees should be part made part for success (Dechawatanapaisai, 2018). Therefore, while it is the marketing department’s role to communicate the new strategy to the consumers, then the HR hold the responsibility of communicating the strategy to employees. In the case of Yoghoyogho, the HR will take up the role of training and development on the new strategies and technologies that the organisation intends to implement as it employs the new strategy. Therefore, the marketing and HR teams employ the use of social and technology-based tools, to create a universal brand message that also applies to the employees (Jawaad et al., 2018). Other than that, while HR is involved in training and developing skills, the Marketing team would also help in advertising the organisation as a great employee environment to attract new talent and reduce the organisation’s turnover rate.

Yoghoyogho has in the past ignored consumer insights and feedback and the results have been fatal. In addition to low consumer satisfaction, the organisation has been faced with low staff morale (Ahmed,2020). HR is at the centre of this issues and coordination with a major consumer and other departments will go a long way in helping reduce these issues and work towards organisational success.

References

Ahmed, T., Khan, M.S., Thitivesa, D., Siraphatthada, Y. and Phumdara, T., 2020. Impact of employees engagement and knowledge sharing on organizational performance: Study of HR challenges in COVID-19 pandemic. Human Systems Management39(4), pp.589-601.­

Bahadur, W., Aziz, S. and Zulfiqar, S., 2018. Effect of employee empathy on customer satisfaction and loyalty during employee–customer interactions: The mediating role of customer affective commitment and perceived service quality. Cogent business & management5(1), p.1491780.

Dechawatanapaisal, D., 2018. Employee retention: the effects of internal branding and brand attitudes in sales organizations. Personnel Review.

Jawaad, M., Amir, A., Bashir, A. and Hasan, T., 2019. Human resource practices and organizational commitment: The mediating role of job satisfaction in emerging economy. Cogent Business & Management.

Wikhamn, W., 2019. Innovation, sustainable HRM and customer satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management76, pp.102-110.

Question 5

Your Chief Executive Officer (CEO) has e-mailed you following a networking webinar which included a brief presentation about ‘high commitment models of HRM’. She asks you to critically evaluate the pros and cons of either adopting this model for your organisation or making further use of it. Draft a 1000 word briefing paper on this topic for your CEO.

Introduction

It’s almost redundant to say that the nature of the job relationship has altered dramatically in the last two decades. Whereas the traditional employment relationship might once be described as a commutation of job security for organizational adhesion and consistent price for performance, changes like work and people’s expectations of work have resulted in forming a new employment relationship. A more competitive corporate environment needs advanced accent on short-term job contracts and performance-based awards for organizations. For employees, a substitute definition of success implies that companies are continuously dealing with a decreasing labor pool that values the well-being and personal advancement at least as much as continuance employment and internal promotions.

Organizations have difficulty as expectations of the employee relationship change. How can organizations elicit loyalty and performance from their employees when they cannot deliver the long-term work stability and other valuable field possibilities that were once anticipated of them? Other businesses have reacted to the issue by using what has been dubbed high performance management techniques that commits them to the course.

High Commitment HRM model

Intellectual curiosity and study in emerging political human resource management approach known as “high performance” management techniques have increased dramatically since the early 1990s (Teo et al., 2021). Such processes include the collective decision, education and training, selective staffing, information, merit-based promotions, work security, and teamwork. Given the prevalence, it emphasizes the essentiality of fostering a sense of belonging through participation in shared organizational objectives and attempts to regulate corporate culture and ensure that employees work effectively within and for it. According to a substantial amount of study done over the last few years, high commitment management strategies, as well as some other approaches like high performance, complex sampling, and accelerated Human Resource Management practices, have been linked to various organizationally positive benefits, including high ROI, profitability, production efficiency, and super low associated with employee turnover(Rubel et al.,2018).

Importance High Commitment HRM model

The High Commitment HRM model may be of critical relevance to the firm since it allows management to include every employee in a specific activity. Additionally, management incorporates employees in the decision-making process, which motivates all employees to work harder to achieve success within a set time frame. As a result, our control may need to adopt this strategy, which will make all permanent employees feel valued and inspired to work harder soon. Apart from that, it should be noted that this HRM strategy will ensure that this organization will never have to worry about losing a large number of talented clientele. The High Commitment HRM approach ensures that no single person is left behind in the progress-making process, which gives all employees a sense of self-assurance and motivates them to work harder (Meijerink et al., 2020).

Negative effects of HCM

Considering the apparent advantages of high-commitment aspects of worker management, we believe that implementing such techniques could harm employer-worker relationship. We contend that high-performance management techniques such as promotions based on merit and work security imply significant commitments that most organizations are unable to fulfill. Despite having good intentions, the uncertainty and turbulence that characterize today’s business environment make it challenging for organizations to meet their commitments to employees by applying HCM principles. The high performance management strategy to employee management, in effect, reflects a paradox. Because of the positive impacts that high commitment management methods have been found to have on organizational performance, they have received a lot of attention. The favorable effects of high commitment management methods are theorized to be due to their excellent influence on corporate attitudinal reactions (e.g., organizational commitment, perceived administrative support). However, what happens when organizations is unable to meet its promises made in numerous HCM practices discussed in the literature (e.g., job stability, promotion chances, and investments in employee development)? We anticipate that contract breaches will frequently occur, given the nature of HCM activities. Still, we believe that the adverse consequences of contract breaches will be compounded in the case of violations involving HCM procedures. Employees are more likely to find HCM procedures appealing, and failing to relinquish them when promised is more likely to result in negative feedback than failure to pay more traditional HRM practices (Biscotti et al., 2018).

Conclusion

In an increasingly competitive company environment, high commitment management has been extensively delineated as an efficient technique of fostering excellent work connections. As a result, while implementing this model in the organization, as I have suggested, may result in more positive contracts than classical HRM practices, it is also more likely to understand contract violations and adverse outcomes for job relationship and worker level outcomes. With the numerous advantages of a high commitment governance strategies to worker management, implementation of the model should be combined with interpersonal treatment and fair procedures when changing or withdrawing HCM practices to aid in mitigating the negative implications that this model may else bring. Lastly, while the links connecting HCM and several organizationally favorable outcomes have been widely documented, there has been relatively little research on the potential negative consequences of HCM. As a result, to maximize the benefits of the models, our management team should support future research that will help us better understand the possible and potentially contradictory consequences of high commitment management techniques on worker outcomes and contract?

Reference

Biscotti, A.M., D’Amico, E. and Monge, F., 2018. Do environmental management systems affect the knowledge management process? The impact on the learning evolution and the relevance of organisational context. Journal of Knowledge Management.

Meijerink, J., Bos-Nehles, A. and de Leede, J., 2020. How employees’ pro-activity translates high-commitment HRM systems into work engagement: The mediating role of job crafting. The International Journal of Human Resource Management31(22), pp.2893-2918.

Rubel, M.R.B., Rimi, N.N., Yusliza, M.Y. and Kee, D.M.H., 2018. High commitment human resource management practices and employee service behaviour: Trust in management as mediator. IIMB Management Review30(4), pp.316-329.

Teo, S.T., Nguyen, D., Shafaei, A. and Bentley, T., 2021. High commitment HRM and burnout of frontline food service employees: a moderated mediation model. Employee Relations: The International Journal.

AC 3.2 Analyse Key Causes of Employee Grievances

Employees face various situations at work that make them unhappy and dissatisfied. Any concern that is not addressed or addressed promptly grows into a grievance, especially employees feel unheard or ignored. Various situations can result in a grievance, from a hostile work atmosphere to bullying. Bridging informal psychological contracts has been a common cause of job grievances. A study conducted by (Baillien et al., 2018) highlighted that occurrences of manager-instigated workplace bullying tend to rise during times of organisational transformation. The study indicated that this sense of increased bullying was primarily attributable to the fact that organisational change typically produces breaches in the psychological contract (Baillien et al., 2018). Depending on the manager, employees may be required to work varying hours or different methods. The psychological contract is breached since an expectation regarding behavior and what one can and cannot do alters. Employee grievances can be grouped as follows

Poor working conditions: A negative work environment can have a negative impact on an employee’s happiness and productivity. Another major cause of employee dissatisfaction is the lack of suitable equipment, tools, and safety gear.

Inconsistent wages and salaries; Grievances are likely to occur if employees are not adequately compensated for their efforts. Employees who feel undervalued may complain if their pay isn’t equivalent to that of their peers (Joyce et al., 2020).

Discrimination: Organisational personnel may express their discontent if they perceive unfairness in the workplace, such as when promotions are based on gender or race rather than merit.

2.2 Distinguish between official and unofficial employee action.

When conflicts arise in an organisation, management ensures that they are addressed and that they do not escalate. Numerous issues contributing to organisational conflicts and grievances include a need for improved working conditions, unfulfilled collective bargaining rights, and increased remuneration (Harcourt et al., 2021). When an organisations’ staff seek to air their issues, and none are resolved peacefully to the satisfaction of both parties, they may take formal or informal action.

A trade union formally supports an official employee action, and union members participate, such as official strikes. Over the years, workers have formed and joined trade unions in order to safeguard their interests as employees. Under official actions, trade unions intervene on behalf of their members in order to negotiate and reach a settlement (Harcourt et al., 2021). The only time action is taken is when a solution cannot be found. These official actions must be carried out in accordance with legal procedures to guarantee that the action is protected.

Unofficial action, on the other hand, is not protected. Employees may opt for go-slows if their issues are not addressed without the support of trade unions. However, because unofficial actions are not safeguarded, employees risk the possibility of being dismissed. (Harcourt et al., 2021). Employee actions, both official and unofficial, have a negative impact on workplace performance. As a result, it is critical for management to respond quickly to workplace issues and disputes before they escalate to the point of resulting in employee actions.

3CO03 Assignment Examples

3CO03 - Core behaviours for people professionals

Task One

AC 1.1 Explain what is meant by ‘ethical principles’ and ‘professional values’ and how these might inform how people approach their work.

Ethical principles encompass general judgments that justify certain ethical assessments and prescriptions of human behaviours and actions. They act as a moral compass by which individuals make decisions and live their lives. Ethical principles guide one to do the right thing. Ethical principles are either reinforced externally or ingrained within a person to assist them in acting accordingly and distinguishing between wrong and right (Aradhya, 2020). They are independent of an individual’s subjective viewpoints and form parts of normative theories that defend moral judgments. Professional values refer to the core ethics and values that one adopts and demonstrates in their areas of work (CIPD, 2022). They are guiding principles and beliefs that impact an individual’s work behaviour. These traits encompass actions, skills, and behaviours that numerous employers search for and wish for in employees. They are generally an extension of one’s personal values like helpfulness, accountability, trust, honesty, and generosity. Although professional values might change with time and around diverse life circumstances, one’s core values and beliefs remain the same. Ethical principles inform how people approach their work by helping them apply professional values and principles and make responsible choices regarding their work.

Additionally, these principles enable them to consider the implications and purpose of their decisions, practices, and actions for all shareholders. It also makes people raise concerns about organisational practices and policies that are inconsistent with legislation or values. On the other hand, with professional values, one approaches work with particular levels of care and professionalism and holds themselves accountable for all that they do (Editorial Team, 2021). Furthermore, it determines an individual’s actions and mindset needed for professional fulfilment and success. Also, one approaches work in a genuine and trustworthy way, thus enabling one to build positive work relations with superiors and colleagues. For instance, treating others well is a professional value one may use in the workplace.

AC 1.2 Identify a piece of legislation and a code of practice that support ethical and professional practice, with examples of how a professional would conform to these.

The Equality Act 2010 is a piece of legislation that supports ethical and professional practice. This act legally protects individuals from discrimination both at their workplaces and in wider society. This equality act replaced earlier anti-discrimination legislation and simplified the law. It made the law easier to comprehend and comply with by eliminating inconsistencies (Bob, 2019). Additionally, it critically strengthens protection in certain situations by helping tackle inequality and discrimination. Professionals conform to the Equality Act of 2010 by promoting diversity and equality in the workplace. Treating workers fairly irrespective of their race, gender, age, and other characteristics is central to the Equality Act 2010 (Bob, 2019). Besides, it offers a platform for employees who have been subject to discrimination to raise concerns with the management and be guaranteed that the matter will be treated with the utmost seriousness.

People professionals should provide a supportive, inclusive, and safe environment for employees to further their knowledge regardless of their background or identity. Under the Equality Act, professionals must make reasonable adjustments to ensure that a disabled worker fulfils their responsibilities in the best way possible. For instance, professionals can physically adapt their workplaces to minimise the effects of their disability. The CIPD’s code of professional conduct supports ethical and professional practice. Professionals must be qualified members of the CIPD. While being a CIPD member is not essential to practising as a people professional, it plays a crucial role in improving and setting standards for people professionals, particularly in regards to ethical principles and professional values (CIPD, 2022). Since CIPD is the professional body in charge of people who practise professions, it has set standards that people must satisfy to become members and must observe once they gain CIPD’s membership. These behaviours and standards are explained and set in the professional code of conduct. This code encompasses four principles, namely: stewardship, integrity, and ethical standards; professional behaviour and competence; and representation of the profession (CIPD, 2022). Hence, professionals must demonstrate high integrity standards in their work to create a transparent and trustworthy workplace culture.

AC 2.1 Describe how a professional would demonstrate respectful and inclusive working in relation to:

  • Contributing views and opinions

A respectful and inclusive workplace allows both employees and employers to feel safe, accepted, and heard. Every employee should feel supported and welcome regardless of diverse characteristics such as age, culture, sexuality, gender, etc. Professionals demonstrate inclusive and respectful working when they seek feedback. This is critical since it ensures every employee is involved in and informed about important organisational matters. Besides, asking employees for their opinions and input makes them feel valued and heard. Seeking feedback from professionals in relation to contributing opinions and views makes the staff feel included and free to raise their concerns and opinions without fear of victimisation or alienation (Boatman, 2022). They are assured that their views will be embraced.

  • Clarifying problems or issues

A people professional can demonstrate respectful and inclusive working in relation to clarifying problems or issues by including every employee in discussions, meetings, and celebrations. Having employees in meetings or discussions promotes a collaborative working environment and produces new ideas for organisational problems (Boatman, 2022). Additionally, it encourages employees to identify solutions promptly and better solutions. Thus, if a professional is having a discussion or meeting to clarify problems, they should include every employee needed. Practicing transparency is another way professionals can demonstrate a respectful and inclusive working environment. Being transparent shows employees that they can be trusted with information and are willing to work towards finding solutions together.

  • Working effectively as part of a team

A professional can demonstrate respectful and inclusive working in relation to working effectively as part of a team by listening to all team members’ opinions and views. Listening carefully to what other team members have to say and allowing them adequate time to communicate their ideas is vital (Boatman, 2022). It promotes a happier, healthier, respectful, and inclusive environment. For instance, a people professional should ensure all team members have had an opportunity to speak first when they feel eager to share their thoughts. This encourages equal participation, which increases collaboration within a team. Additionally, recognising the achievements and strengths of individual team members promotes a respectful and inclusive working environment. It is essential for professionals to recognise the accomplishments and strengths of their teams. This can be done by praising them for their dedication, successes, or skills to demonstrate one’s appreciation and respect.

AC 2.2 Summarize different ways a people professional would stay up-to-date with people practise and world of work issues and developments, highlighting two in particular that you have personally found effective.

It is critical for people professionals to stay on top of people’s practise developments and world of work matters. This gives one a competitive edge and helps them acquire experience and recognise prospects for advancement (CIPD, 2019). Attending professional events is one of the ways a people professional can stay up-to-date with people practise and world of work issues and developments. These events provide valuable opportunities for one to learn about advancement and growth in people’s practises. Professional groups and companies often host workshops or seminars that give one direct insight and access to experts in their field (Partners, 2022). Hence, these events serve as constructive networking opportunities for individuals to brainstorm and exchange ideas with co-workers who can offer fresh perspective and insight. Undertaking a professional development course is the second way a professional can stay on top of practise and world developments. These courses help one learn new things, thus expanding one’s professional knowledge and skill set (Partners, 2022).

Part-time and online professional development courses permit one to continue working while they study. Hence, one can explore numerous courses associated with their industry and study them to build skills that can be applied to an extensive variety of roles. Having an industry buddy or mentor is one of the ways I have personally found effective in staying up-to-date with people’s practises. Enlisting the assistance of an industry buddy has given me an opportunity to acquire new information outside of the office. This situation encourages conversational flow with the chance to make queries without fear of judgement. This has broadened my perspective and helped me build up my industry knowledge. Social media is another way I have personally found effective to stay on top of people’s practises and world developments. I absorb the latest opinions and information by following leaders and industry experts on channels like LinkedIn, Twitter, and Instagram. LinkedIn, in particular, adds great insights to my conversations since it is a great means for interacting with industry leaders, colleagues, and trade groups.

Task 2

Appendix 1 – CPD Reflections (Activity 1- AC 2.3 Demonstrate proactive approaches to developing, recording and reflecting on your professional knowledge, skills and experiences.)

Reflection 1

Word Count – 318 Words

Formal/Informal Development activities from the last 12 monthsWhat did I learn?What did the learning experience tell me about myself?How does this learning experience impact my professional practice and the way I’ll approach situations in the future?What do I need to do next for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact (e.g., on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession, society)?
 Undertook a five-month programme on creating purposeful relationship and collaborations with others.            I attained vital skills and knowledge needed when working inclusively with diverse members of my team. The programme taught me that positive workplace relationships improve organisational performance and productivity while reducing cases of conflicts. Hence, employees work harmonious to accomplish a common objective. Besides, the programme educated me on the essence of having collaborations with colleagues and its role in promoting organisational growth, creativity and innovation.                           The new knowledge and skills learnt will enable me embrace the correct means of building and nurturing relationships amongst my team members and various shareholders in my firm. These admirable relationships will be critical in uniting the entire staff and enhancing their daily operations and roles. Besides, relating with clients will be easier since I already have the knowledge needed on building positive relationships with others.  I will work collaboratively with my co-workers to devise the best means for effective organisational goal attainment. This learning will assist me and my colleagues in assessing earlier methods that worked efficiently once applied and incorporating them into future organisational plans. Also, the programme assisted me in categorising different customers and developing appropriate methods for handling each individually.    I           I will urge my colleagues to undertake the same programme in order to acquire the skills and knowledge for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession and the society at large. Furthermore, I offer community learning forums to provide members of the society on the importance of establishing purposeful relationships with other workmates in facilitating organisational efficiency in service delivery. Moreover, organisational departments should outline and publish a summary on crucial arguments from the programme, and then proceed to safely store the summary to act as mementos for all departments. Thus, the mementos can serve as a reference point for future and current staff to refer to.

Screenshots for reflection 1

Reflection 2

Word Count – 277 words

Formal/Informal Development activities from the last 12 monthsWhat did I learn?What did the learning experience tell me about myself?How does this learning experience impact my professional practice and the way I’ll approach situations in the future?What do I need to do next for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact (e.g. on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession, society)?
Participated in a four-month online research on enhancing employee voice.               I learnt that direct relation between employee wellbeing and job satisfaction, retention rates and employee productivity. Also, I gained skills and knowledge on various tools and techniques which entities implement to improve employee voice. Some of these tools include; focus groups, 360-degree feedbacks and use of pulse surveys. I learnt that use of these strategies is quite easy when a person is skilled and knowledgeable about them.    The learning experience told me that I enjoy listening to my colleagues’ viewpoints. Moreover, the learning experience told me that I am mindful when considering others diverse perspectives in a wide range of topics.T My learning experience will enable me to develop and implement people practices that positively impact employees’ overall wellbeing like flexible working hours, health and financial plans and wellness programs. Moreover, this learning will impact my professional practice in promoting my firm’s employee voice by collecting feedback and using employee voice tools to inform organisational policies and practices.    I         I will ask the top management to hire instructors and pay internet fees for my co-workers to undertake the same online research so as to acquire knowledge on means to enhance employee voice. Additionally, I will write down crucial sum-up-points on employee voice and offer them to my co-workers and organisational departments to gain the skills that I learnt. Also, I will advocate for regular use of online employee voice tools to develop one’s understanding of core voice tools and employee wellbeing. Moreover, I will encourage colleagues, team members, shareholders and clients to freely voice their opinions and views on various platforms for improved services and increased engagement.

Screenshots for reflection 2

Reflection 3

Word Count – 163 Words

Formal/Informal Development activities from the last 12 monthsWhat did I learn?What did the learning experience tell me about myself?How does this learning experience impact my professional practice and the way I’ll approach situations in the future?What do I need to do next for this learning experience to have a wider positive impact (e.g., on others, my organisation, the sector, the profession, society)?
Joined an evidence-based people practice mentorship workshop for three months.                 ]         I learnt about effective methods of making good judgements and decisions that fact-informed. Also, I learnt that it is crucial for a people professional to be directed by expertise consultation, evidence literature when making decisions. Besides, I learnt that collaboration between organisational functions is vital for its success.  The learning told me that I can mentor my team members, peers, and co-workers effectively.            I will use the learning experience to improve my decision-making processes by consulting widely and using relevant evidence. Additionally, I will work collaboratively with co-workers in my profession to promote organisational growth and stability.   ly the  I         To have a wider positive impact I will inform my colleagues in people practice to summarise vital points I acquired in the workshop to refer back to when developing practices and policies critical for realisation of the entity’s success.              


References

Aradhya D. (2020, October 24). Ethics: Definition, principles, importance, ethical issues, ethical dilemma, code of ethics. Your Article Library. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/business/ethics/ethics/99812

Boatman, A. (2022, June 28). 7 ways HR can help create an inclusive environment at work. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.aihr.com/blog/inclusive-environment-at-work/

Bob, H. (2019). Equal Rights Trust. (Online). Retrieved November 7,2022 from https://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/bob%20hepple.pdf

CIPD. (2022). Code of professional conduct. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.cipd.co.uk/about/what-we-do/professional-standards/code#gref

CIPD. (2019, September 23). Building inclusive workplaces. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/relations/diversity/building-inclusive-workplaces#gref

CIPD. (2022, August 24). Ethical practice and the role of people professionals | Factsheets | CIPD. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/culture/ethics/role-hr-factsheet#gref

Indeed Editorial Team. (2021, November 30). Just a moment... What are personal and professional values and why are they important? Just a moment (Online). Retrieved November 7,2022 from https://uk.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/personal-professional-values

Partners, M. (2022, September 22). 11 ways to keep your skills and knowledge current. MBO Partners. (Online). Retrieved November 7, 2022 from https://www.mbopartners.com/blog/how-manage-small-business/how-to-keep-your-skills-and-knowledge-current-and-why-it-matters1/

Task One

Articles

Define the term professional and explain what it means to be a ‘people practice professional’. (1.1)

The oxford dictionary defines a professional as “a person engaged or qualified in a profession.” To most people, “professionalism” is carrying oneself in a manner that promotes confidence in one’s abilities, dependability, and respect among one’s peers. Therefore, a professional is an individual who consistently performs at a high degree of proficiency and productivity. The greatest strength of every company is its employees, hence the need for people practise professionals. These experts understand the significance of employees in achieving organizational objectives (CIPD, 2022). Their main concern is the people practices that have an effect on the growth and administration of their personnel as a whole. They focus on the specifics of each worker to guarantee a satisfying work experience.

Knowledge, values and behaviours of people professionals.

Core Knowledge for People Professionals

When it comes to leading change, building value, and making a difference in the workplace, the CIPD Professional Map outlines six essential areas of knowledge including; business acumen, evidence-based practice, technology and people, people practice, change and Culture and behaviours (CIPD, 2022). These core knowledge areas were established through scholarly research and feedback across the people practise profession, and are based on the most up-to-date research and findings in the field of human resources (CIPD, 2022). These principles help people professionals across various industries, or areas of expertise, to increase their job performance and serve their clients better

Value of People Professionals

The core value of the people practise professionals is to advocate for enhanced working conditions as well as conditions outside of work, creating a fair, inclusive and good work environment through the design of roles, opportunities, organizations, and work conditions that inspire the best in people, leading to successful business outcomes and in consequentially, boosting economies.

Core behaviours

Scholarly research and practitioner feedback have uncovered certain thinking patterns and behaviour as essential for success in the field of human resources (CIPD, 2022). To help people professionals make a positive impact on individuals, businesses, and society at large, the CIPD Professional Map outlines eight essential actions a people professional may take (CIPD, 2022). Professional courage and influence, Valuing people, ethical practice, insights focused, situational decision-making, passion for learning, commercial drive and working inclusively (CIPD, 2022). Despite the novelty and difficulty of every given scenario, there are some perspective and behaviour that should always be adhered to. The fundamental behaviours serve this purpose by identifying the characteristics of a successful people professional in the face of a volatile and ever-changing work environment (CIPD, 2022). These practices, which were supported by academic and expert evidence represent a radical transformation for people professionals by placing a higher emphasis making decisions based on ethics and evidence

Discuss the concept of ‘ethical values’, and how at least three ethical values that you hold personally impact (or could impact) on your work as a people practice professional. (1.2)

Ethical value can easily be defined as doing that which is right unconditionally. It acts as a moral compass for how individuals relate to each other and make their decisions (CIPD, 2019).  As a people professional, ethical decision-making and problem-solving are integral parts of my daily routine. My professional role typically expects me to set an example of ethical behaviour in the workplace. My three most valued ethical practices include; Integrity, honesty and responsibility. These values are really important especially in the workplace where individuals are expected to carry themselves professionally. To begin with, an individual with integrity is one who can be trusted. When employees have integrity then the managers can better perform their roles as they do not have to micromanage each task assigned to the employee. Furthermore, work with persons of integrity is easier as everyone does what is expected of them when it is expected of them. Honesty is also key building an environment of trust within the organisation. As a people professional it is important to ensure that not only do the employees embrace honesty but that it is part of the organisational culture. This has helped create trust between us and our customers which has greatly influenced our ability to retain them. Finally, responsibility is one key aspect of being a professional. Taking responsibility does not only mean in partaking our duties and roles but also being accountable when we fail to meet expectations. I ensure to act as a role model both at work and at home both performing my tasks efficiently and also admitting when I make mistakes or make wrong decisions.

Drawing on work or personal examples, analyse how you would/have made an engaging and well-informed contribution to discussions to support the application of good people practice (1.3)

I was once tasked with creating awareness at my workplace on good people practises and its benefit to the organisation’s success to better help my co-workers grasp the concept of people practices. I began by explaining the term people practises.It encompasses handling workers at all points of their employment. People practices include things like responding to employee concerns, determining learning needs, developing and implementing company policies, building and evaluating talent pools, analysing the data, and recruiting and training new personnel. I then proceeded to explaining some examples of good people practices including

  1. Giving employees a voice in how their work is conducted and how the workplace is run as a whole.
  2. Having clearly defined employee duties and responsibilities 
  3. Inspiring workers to work well together by teaching them how to have productive and respectful conversations, and offer mutual support and cooperate (Cronin et al., 2021).
  4. Enhance workers’ skills through support workers with access to learning and development opportunities.
  5. Motivate them more, give them constructive criticism, and offer encouragement all through performance management systems that are transparent, objective, helpful, and efficient (Arnold & Bowie, 2019).

A company’s ability to succeed in its industry is directly correlated to the quality of the management it employs (Cronin et al., 2021). Possible benefits from excellent people management include: Increased productivity, each employee completing their roles efficiently due to regular communication, employees who are always up for challenges, exceptional team work, and decreased turnover rates (Kabeyi, 2018). Finally I elaborate on a few steps on how our organisation can adopt goof people practices for instance;

  • Create effective HR policies and procedures that are tailored towards the organisation’s goals and objectives through regular reviews, updates, and internal communications.
  • You should periodically review any employment contract to ensure they are up to date with the laws and the business goals (Kabeyi, 2018).
  • Making sure managers have been properly trained on good management practices.
  • Take into account the advantages of a satisfied and involved staff, as they will be less inclined to file employment disputes.

Drawing on work or personal examples, analyse how you would/have taken responsibility for your work/actions, including recognising and rectifying mistakes (1.4)

Human resources errors can have far-reaching consequences for the company. Litigation expenses can be quite high for businesses that don’t follow the law regarding employee rights and benefits or data confidentiality (Roth, 2018). Recruiting and training a new employee comes with significant expenditures, and if a mistake is made and the incorrect person selected for the job, the organisation is exposed to more risk. I have made my own share of mistakes which has had serious repercussions. For instance, an employee once approached me with a workplace grievance that one of the managers was employing favouritism especially when assigning duties and responsibilities. Since workload was too big at the moment I decided to handle the matter later when most of it would be done. I however ended up forgetting to handle the matter altogether. Little did I know many employees were affected by the matter and it came to light once again we had lost almost four of our most promising employees. The issue now too dire and I had to take responsibility of failing to acknowledge and act on a grievance soon enough. Nonetheless, I agreed to take responsibility and fix the situation. I conducted in depth evaluation of the matter before employing the company policy and procedures on how to deal with the line manager. I was also able to reach out and talk to the employees who left to come back promising a correction of the matter and I was able to bring back two who were yet to receive new offers. I conducted immediate interviews and training to replace the remaining two. After the incidence I ensured to remain keen on employee grievances.

Drawing on work or personal examples, analyse how you would/have known when and how to raise concerns when issues such as organisational policies or leadership approaches conflict with ethical values or legislation. (1.5)

One of our role as people professionals is to ensure that the organisation was up at per with any legal laws and conducted its business ethically (Tursunbayeva et al., 2021). When I was just a new hire at my organisation, I was reviewing employment contracts to get familiar with roles and the organisation’s employment terms and policies. After reviewing the contracts I came to the realization that the organisation had a huge gender pay gap disparity. Men were paid way more compared to the women on the same role with the men’s income increasing by a 5% rate higher than the women. Furthermore, to avoid any conflict the employees were mandated to sign a non-disclosure agreement. It felt wrong and the organisation risked facing legal repercussions if the matter came to light. Since I was new and did not want to raise any alarm I took time to study the chain of command and who would best help solve the matter. Before the next executive meeting I approached the senior head of HR and brought the issue to light. He was surprised to get wind of the matter and asked me to make a presentation on the new employment law changes and need to change organisational policies that I would present during the meeting to help the top decision makers to understand why it was a matter of urgency. Sure enough my presentation was well received with top management noting that it had been while since the policies were evaluated, reviewed and updated hence the need to do so before any issues occurred.

Provide a robust argument for ethical people practice that is supported by academic theory and details both the business and human benefits of people at work feeling included, valued and fairly treated. (2.1)

Ethical practices are often a point of reference when discussing what constitutes good and wrong in the workplace.  Ethical principles in business supplement the law by specifying conduct that is not subject to regulatory oversight (Ferreira et al., 2018). Businesses adopt codes of conduct to foster a culture of honesty and trustworthiness among employees and stakeholders. Ethical people practice initiatives are widespread today, although their quality differs widely. It’s more crucial than ever for businesses to do the right things in light of the increased scrutiny of corporate operations.  Staff members committed to acting morally are also critical to successful businesses.

Business benefits of ethical people practice

Ethical people practices that uphold moral standards are essential for maximizing profits. For instance, companies that appeared in the list of the most ethical companies globally last year, showed to have exceeded the Large Cap Index by 10.5% in a period of 3 years. Additionally, am ethics program initiative can help save money (Tursunbayeva et al., 2021). Studies have found that 22% of cases investigated resulted in losses of $1 million and over for the affected company. Companies with poor ethics may also see a negative effect on stock price and the loss of business alliances, both of which can have a negative impact on its bottom line (Lasakova et al., 2022). Furthermore, consumer loyalty is connected to a company’s commitment to doing the right thing. Reports show that approximately 50% of consumers stopped their business with organisations that they view as unethical

Human benefits of ethical people practices

Employees from organisations that make the value of ethics in the workplace apparent are highly likely to employ ethical reasoning. A high number of employees exposed to a positive ethical culture are more likely to report feeling equipped to deal with ethical concerns (Tursunbayeva et al., 2021). Organizational cultures that promote ethical behaviour in the workplace tend to produce more honest and trustworthy results. Furthermore, when employees want to remain within an organisation where feel valued and treated fairly.

Using your own example of providing a people practice solution to meet a particular need, or a hypothetical example such as introducing a new policy or reward initiative, comment on how you would/have ensured the ‘design’ of the solution was informed by engagement with others, particularly those most affected by the solution. (2.2)

Each people practice issues has a unique solution. For easy implementation of these solutions, it is important to have all stakeholders on board to avoid any resistance to change. One trouble that my organisation has been facing was its ability to retain its employees. Senior management contacted my department to come up with a solution to the issue as it was costing a lot of money to replace an employee every now and then. My team began by issuing questionnaires to the employees on the gaps that existed in people practises. It came to our realisation that the staff lacked morale and motivation and yet they still had to face uneven work-life balance due to work overload caused by frequent absenteeism and turnover. My team opted to conduct research on policies that could be implemented to cover this issue and a number of solutions were rounded up including introducing a reward initiative, introducing flexible hours and zero contracts as well as offering promotions (CIPD, 2021). However, to decide which solution to opt for, our team involved top management, and employees. From top management feedback received was to opt for solutions that boosted motivation but also could fit with in the budget. Many employees on the other hand wanted solutions that brought more financial security and work balance. Therefore, with this feedback we eliminated pay raise which despite bringing financial security led to budget constraints. However, we opted for up-scale training where employees would be guaranteed training to better fit top positions within the organisation. This would grow their skills and guarantee financial security and the budgetary constraints would be limited. Also for immediate rewards the employees would be subjected to biannual bonuses based on performance evaluation. Finally zero hour contracts would be introduced to lessen the work burden on the employees and have them work normal hours or at least receive bonuses for extra work hours.

Using your own example of providing a people practice solution to meet a particular need, or a hypothetical example such as introducing a new policy or reward initiative, comment on how you would/have evaluated the impact of the solution in terms of how well it met the needs of and engaged all those it was aimed at. (2.3)

The strengths of the new policy was to increase employee retention, boost morale, increase productivity and eventually the organisation’s profitability. The main shortcoming of the policy would be the financial risks posed due to budgetary constraints. Therefore, to determine the rate of retention, the formula for calculating employee retention was applied and though there was turnover it appeared to have decreased. 360 degree feedback can be used to get feedback on employee morale and their feeling towards the new policies and a high percentage mentioned feeling motivated to achieve their goals due to possibilities of promotion and the biannual bonuses. Employee productivity was evaluated using performance appraisals which will show how productive employees are in achieving organisational goals and many employees had met over 50% of their goals. Finally financial measures such as Return on Investment and KPIs were used to determine how profitable these policies have been to the organisation and although it was farsighted there was a possibility of increased profitability.

References

Discuss the concept of ‘ethical values’, and how at least three ethical values that you hold personally impact (or could impact) on your work as a people practice professional. (1.2)

Ethical value can easily be defined as doing that which is right unconditionally. It acts as a moral compass for how individuals relate to each other and make their decisions (CIPD, 2019).  As a people professional, ethical decision-making and problem-solving are integral parts of my daily routine. My professional role typically expects me to set an example of ethical behaviour in the workplace. My three most valued ethical practices include; Integrity, honesty and responsibility. These values are really important especially in the workplace where individuals are expected to carry themselves professionally. To begin with, an individual with integrity is one who can be trusted. When employees have integrity then the managers can better perform their roles as they do not have to micromanage each task assigned to the employee. Furthermore, work with persons of integrity is easier as everyone does what is expected of them when it is expected of them. Honesty is also key building an environment of trust within the organisation. As a people professional it is important to ensure that not only do the employees embrace honesty but that it is part of the organisational culture. This has helped create trust between us and our customers which has greatly influenced our ability to retain them. Finally, responsibility is one key aspect of being a professional. Taking responsibility does not only mean in partaking our duties and roles but also being accountable when we fail to meet expectations. I ensure to act as a role model both at work and at home both performing my tasks efficiently and also admitting when I make mistakes or make wrong decisions.

Task Two

ANALYSIS AND REVIEW OF THE DATA

Slide 2

To review and evaluate data, various human resource analytical techniques are available. This section used Microsoft Excel to do a data analysis on the supplied data.There The graph below summarises employee feedback on their immediate supervisors. 250 respondents disagreed with the notion that line managers delegate authority, while 245 believed that line managers do not convey the rationale for changes and decisions. According to 219 respondents, line managers were unapproachable. The three categories listed previously had the highest percentage of respondents rating their line managers negatively. As illustrated in graph 1, the majority of respondents disapproved of their line supervisors’ most positive characteristics.

As illustrated above, a pie chart represents data as a circular graph. The pie slices represent variables that should add up to the total. For instance, 256 employees responded to questions in total. 156 employees disagreed, while 100 agreed, on the issue of line manager assistance. The graph above illustrates the percentile distribution of this data. Simple to read and comprehend, pie charts. Additionally, they visualise data as a fraction of a whole.

Customer feedback Analysis

143 respondents agreed that the packaging was adequate and effectively protected the products. 142 clients expressed dissatisfaction with the manner in which their initial inquiries were handled; 114 complained that the selection of goods and products was insufficient to fulfil their needs.

The statistics collected generally reveal a performance difference between employees and their line managers. As indicated by client feedback, the disparity impairs performance. According to the findings, line managers’ decision-making processes must include employees. Additionally, line managers should foster an organisational culture that values and appreciates its personnel.

Slide 3

According to the CIPD (2020), people data and analytics may assist human resources and other management personnel in an organisation in resolving business challenges and making choices. Numerous sorts of data are beneficial for quantifying and illuminating human behaviour. Qualitative data is based on human observation of employee behaviours, habits, skills, and other performance-related aspects. This data provides an in-depth understanding of issues as well as descriptive information about how various issues are expressed in language. Utilising techniques such as brainstorming, questionnaires, and interviews, qualitative data can be utilised to assess work and individual performance. Employee turnover can be quantified qualitatively through brainstorming groups or departure interviews.

On the other side, quantitative data illustrates performance through the use of numbers and figures. While quantitative data is more precise and reliable, it is also short-lived. Quantitative data can be utilised to construct and maintain records for weekly work hours, employee retention rates, employee count, and employee age. This information can be gathered and analysed using various human resource analytical software programmes.

Slide 4

There are different methods of representing finding through graphs. Some of the commonly used types of graphs are; Bar graphs , line graphs, histograms and pie charts. The finding of this analysis have been presented using different graphs in AC 2.1  above.

Slide 5

The process through which an organisation creates value may be affected by the need to grow and expand, the desire for a return on investment, or the desire to meet customers’ needs (Payal Sondhi, 2018). By efficiently utilising human potential, value can be created. The main goal of good people management is to add value to the company and its employees, as well as the community around them. Value can be made by making money, or by giving employees a sense of what they want to do. The value that the society gets from this could be in the form of long-term sustainability and a high-quality life. In the mission and strategy of an organisation, they write down what they want to achieve. Real business value is found in the factors that affect an organization’s business goals (Brugman and Dijk, 2020).

Apart from 360-degree feedback, there are a variety of alternative approaches and instruments for assessing the impact and value of human resource practices. Value and impact measurement are critical components of meeting corporate objectives. Additionally, it can ensure that an organisation has employees who contribute, justify spending on various human resource activities, continuously enhance employee performance, and identify organisational needs and gaps to enable educated business decisions.

The cost-benefit analysis is critical for determining which decisions should be made and which should be avoided. It is the process through which the anticipated benefits of an action are added up and then subtracted from the total cost of the action (Hayes And Anderson, 2021). For instance, all employees deemed to have performed well earned a £400.00 incentive. According to the published statistics, 245 employees are eligible for bonus payments. As a result, the corporation would spend £ 98,000.00 on bonuses in total. However, a budget of £75,000.00 was allocated. If every employee received the bonus, the organisation would have spent an additional £23,000.00.

The bonus amount should be reduced to match the budget, based on the cost-benefit analysis of the circumstance. Alternatively, different incentive programmes, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can be employed to recognise exceptional performers. Additionally, the organisation can improve performance by rewarding individuals who earn a five or six. Employees with a five-star rating may enhance their performance as a result, which affects the organisation’s performance.

Return on investment is a metric that can be used to determine the likelihood of profiting from an investment. ROI is a ratio that indicates the relationship between gains and losses, and cost. The return on investment (ROI) calculation determines the possible returns on investment. In the preceding example, the return would be negative because the budget allocation was exceeded. The return on investment is expressed as a percentage to make it more understandable.

Slide 6

TASK TWO - SIMULATED INTERVIEW

PERSON SPECIFICATION

Post Title: PEOPLE ASSISTANT
EssentialDesirable
Knowledge and qualifications 
Evidence-based practice Valuing people Workforce planning Human Resources Management Systems (HRIS) Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) Training and Development skills Decision-making skills  Good communicator Cooperative Team player Multi-tasker Shows empathy
Experience  
2+ years of administration role;CIPD LEVEL 5 Certificate;Experience in workforce planning  
Skills and Competencies  
Leadership skillsExcellent communication and negotiation skillsEthical PracticeKnowledge of diversity and inclusionTime management  Solving problemsThe ability to consult with colleagues and junior employees.  

SHORTLISTING SELECTION CRITERIA (MATRIX)

School/ Directorate/ DepartmentDepartment
Job Title:Criteria Does not mention criteria at allMention criteria but no evidence/ example Mention criteria with weak evidence/ example Mention criteria with very good example / Strong evidence  
Job Reference no.:
Shortlisting Panel Member
APPLICANT NAME PERSON SPECIFICATION CRITERIAOmar HassanJohn StonesDavid BeckhamMercy WilliamsStacy Dash
Knowledge and Qualifications     
Evidence-based practise33312
CIPD Level 533033
Workforce planning  33333
Experience     
2+ years of administration role00033
Work experience in the similar role33033
Skills and Competencies     
Excellent communication33333
Leadership skills32033
Ethical Practice13023
Time management33333
Total2223122426

Interview Questions and Notes

Interviewer: I would first wish to thank you for attending the interview. Briefly tell me about yourself.

Interviewee: I am ambitious and driven. I thrive on difficulties and constantly set personal goals to ensure I have something to strive toward. I enjoy making new people and learning about their jobs and way of life. Bonding with new people has never been a challenge because I make them feel comfortable around me. From my point of view, this skill is vital and is especially fundamental when onboarding new employees. New hire turnover statistics dropped from 88% to 65% at my previous job position.

Interviewer: What are your top strengths and weaknesses in managing people?

I put prioritise and advocate for employee needs before anything else. I also believe in open and honest communication where everyone has the right to be heard and express their feelings. I also believe embrace equality. Additionally, I support employees to achieve their full potential through mentoring and coaching. While I believe in everyone taking responsibility for their action, I am very conscious of my propensity to criticise or correct employees from minority communities. Although this impacts the chances of team success, I try to use my expertise by sending corrections to the employees during general meetings. 

Interviewer: How would you lead a team while at the same time coordinating your schedule?

Interview: I am an organised person who takes pride in crossing things off the list. I categorise my tasks into daily, weekly, monthly, and annual arrangements before deciding how to do them. I also advocate for my employees to do the same and emphasise this by meeting with my employees at least once a week to discuss upcoming events and tasks.

Interviewer: How do you keep up to date with people’s professional trends?

Interviewee: I am a member of numerous human resource professional associations. I also listen to THE HR podcasts. I also pursue development and keep up to date with HR trends by enrolling to free professional development classes. For instance, I have a certificate in modern conflict resolution from Harvard Business School.

Interviewer: What qualifies you as the best candidate for the post of people assistant?

Interviewee: The insight I gained about your organisation was fascinating, and more than willing to work for your company if accorded a chance. Helping employees achieve their best is what I am passionate about; being a people professional enables me to achieve this. I am more willing to help your employees achieve their full potential and translate that into increased productivity. I helped my previous company increase their sales and lower its turnover from 88% to 78%. I am certain that I can do the same in your organisation if accorded a chance.

Interviewer: What aspirations do you have for this position?

Interviewee: I look forward to using my knowledge and skills to bolster employee performance and solve organisation issues facing the HR department. While I am aware that cannot be achieved without challenges; I am eager to discover solutions and build a strong team.

Interview notes

The interviewee has strong managerial capabilities. His precise examples demonstrate his excellent leadership skills. He is skilled at working with people and adopting evidence-based solutions. The candidate also exhibits high ethical standards as well as intensive knowledge of diversity and inclusion. The candidate is also a good communicator and listener; the organisation will definitely gain a lot from her extensive knowledge and skills.

AC 3.2 The concept of well-being in the workplace and why it is essential

Employee well-being can be termed as the overall mental, physical, and economic health of employees within a particular organisation. Bolstering employee well-being at the workplace is vital for people within a particular organisation (CIPD Factsheet 2022). In fact, championing better work and working lives is the heart of the CIPD Profession Map (2022). The CIPD Factsheet (2022) further shows that facilitating a healthy working environment helps employees to flourish and reach their maximum potential. Specifically, a healthy working environment entails creating a clear environment that actively bolsters the state of contentment, which benefits both employees and their organisations. Recently, mental health has grown to become among the key focus of health and well-being activities (CIPD Health and Wellbeing Report 2022). According to the CIPD Factsheet (2022), investing in employees’ well-being can result in increased resilience, increased productivity, improved employee engagement, as well as reduced sickness-related absenteeism. Additionally, employee well-being initiatives are also instrumental in creating a happier workforce (Wellneux.com 2018).

 Regarding happiness, employees participating in well-being initiatives are more content with their work-related factors. Furthermore, well-being initiatives at the workplace bring employees together and improve their working relationships. Once employees co-exist well and peacefully with one another, organisations’ productivity significantly increases. However, on numerous occasions, employee well-being initiatives often fail to achieve their intended objectives because they stand alone. Hence, it is essential to ensure that well-being initiatives are not isolated from everyday business. Additionally, it is also vital to ensure that employee well-being priorities are integrated throughout the whole organisation and embedded in its culture and leadership. In conclusion, investing in well-being initiatives should not be a one-time thing but should be a continuous endeavour in which the organisation invests over time (CIPD Factsheet 2022; Wellneux.com 2018).

AC 4.2 The main factors that need to be considered when managing performance

Numerous factors need to be considered when managing performance. The first factor that needs to be considered is the factors that impact job performance. Arguably, multiple factors impact job performance. Some of these key factors are knowledge, experience, awareness, motives and values. Another crucial factor that needs to be considered when managing performance is the clarity of a given goal. According to Nickols (2012), it is fundamental for employees to have in mind a clear picture of any given goal they need to achieve. The author maintains that if that does not exist, the employees can’t understand if they are making progress or when they are accomplished. Nickols (2012) quotes a two-thousand years old quote, “keep the end in view,” to justify the need for a clear goal.

Another critical factor that needs to be considered while managing performance is the level of motivation. Regarding motivation, Nickols (2012) states that “it is one thing to be able to do something; it is something else altogether to want to do it.” Away from that, it is important to highlight that people want to do things for two critical reasons, which are: to serve their purpose or serve another individual purpose in which they are offered something in return. In a workplace setting, self-satisfaction and incentives are fundamental motivators. Another critical factor that needs to be considered when managing performance is work systems. Examples of work systems include information systems, supply chains and employee services (Burke 2017).

AC 6.2 Describe different types of learning needs and reasons why they arise for individuals and organisations.

According to Stewart and Rogers (2017), there are different types of learning needs and the reasons they arise for both employees and their organisations. According to Hayden (2021), one of the basic steps of preparing an effective learning and development policy is identifying knowledge and skill set gaps. From the above argument, the first learning need can be identified as upgrading skills due to a significant gap in employees’ knowledge and skills. A learning need may also arise from an organisation’s external and internal factors. For instance, a learning need may arise from the adoption of new technology. Here, employers have no choice but to facilitate but to equip their employees with knowledge and skills to understand new technology.

By the same token, a learning need may arise from new legislation or any other type of government intervention. For instance, the “Health and Safety at Work Act 1974” requires all organisations across the UK to provide their employees with adequate information, training, and instruction as a necessary measure to promote the health and safety of their employees (Viciworks 2019). A learning need may also arise when employers want their employees to clearly see the organisation’s goals. For instance, during the onboarding process, employees are taught about the organisation’s goals in an effort to ensure they understand what the organisation wants of them. Regarding the same, Rogers (2017) argued that developing clarity of vision requires investing in education to ensure employees truly understand what they are chasing.

AC 2.2 An evaluation of the effectiveness of promotion/demotion rates, employee turnover rates, and critical incident analysis techniques used to support workforce planning.

Moreover, strategic planning help to unlock more opportunities and success. That is the key advantage of workforce planning tools because they enable human resource managers to plan around the current workforce while at the same time looking ahead to the future of the organisation (Stewart and Brown 2019). There are numerous techniques that managers can use in workforce planning processes. One key strategy is reviewing the company’s business plan to make sure the organisation has ample staff to achieve its goals (George et al. 2019). Another strategy is focusing on future conditions and the environment based on the company’s repeating trends. Establishing current staff competencies is also a vital strategy to guide workforce planning. Identifying the need for promotion and demotion is also another key tool supporting workforce planning processes.

In specific, promotion and demotion can aid organisations in developing a competent workforce as well as boosting employee morale and confidence. On the other hand, measuring employee turnover also offers vital insight into some of the challenges the current team is experiencing. Evidently, there are numerous benefits associated with strategic workforce planning. One benefit is that strategic planning equips leaders with tools to identify talent issues. Another advantage is that it decreases hiring costs. However, there are also several disadvantages arising from supporting workforce planning. One disadvantage is that poor workforce planning can result in reactive hiring decisions. Secondly, the identification of talent gaps can result in existing employee burnout. Now shifting our attention to the OcMara organisation, effective workforce planning can aid the organisation’s management in identifying the workforce size necessary for the company to achieve sustainable operations.

AC 2.5 Continue your journal with ongoing reflections on your performance and development. (Approximately 400 words)

My soft skills on communication and teamwork really needed a boost especially when I became a senior HR in my organisation. It is because unlike my previous role I would be handling more project and acting as a bridge not only between management and employees but management and the consumers as well. Upon commencing with my CIPD course I became aware of how to effectively employ communication and critical thinking to a situation. This was quite useful in saving a marketing issue that occurred at the firm almost costing us out top consumer and some investors. When the situation occurred, I was quick to work with the public relations team, the marketing team and to resolve the matter and keep our customers and investors. Although the matter caused the firm some money, we saved more than what we lost and that was a win.

In my previous organisation, I was not just responsible with people practises but I was also responsible with dealing with payrolls for the organisation did not have an accounting department. Since I was fresh from college I did not have a lot of skills and competencies as I had more theoretical than practical knowledge. Hence when presented with the payroll software to handle matters sprawled out of control as I failed to make correct calculations and ended up giving some employees more and others less compensation than they deserved. This resulted in a lot of commotion after the salary was released with people complaining having salary deductions while others got raises. I was so overwhelmed and had to receive a lot of help to get the issue fixed. The matter wasted a lot of time and money too. Afterwards I decided to enrol into an accounting class so that I could better fit into my rolls in the organisation.

This reflective journal has been both enlightening and encouraging. It has acted as a reminder as to why I need to put more effort in improving my skills and knowledge to offer optimal performance at work. On the other hand it has really encouraged me reminding me how far I have come in my career journey and the mistakes I used to make and how I moved passed them. At some point I felt useless and in the wrong path but frequent reflection and planning has helped me understand that all it takes is learning for growth to occur.

Activity 3 – Reflective Practice

Taking Responsibility

In my early years as a professional, I once observed a member of my team engaging in conduct that violated the company’s regulations. However, I was new to the team and had no idea how to handle the matter, I remained silent.  After some time passed, it became apparent that the firm had sustained significant losses due to the incident, and that occurred only after some time elapsed that I understood how lightly I had treated the issue. I realized that regardless of the outcome, I will always pick the course of action that is in my best interest and report occurrences of this sort as soon as I encounter them.

When it came time for me to bear responsibility for my actions, I was instructed to spotlight a team member in relation to the executive meeting incident. Now was the time for me to accept accountability for my conduct. Assuming responsibility becomes necessary at this juncture. I was in such a rush the first time I saw him that I neglected to tell him about the event we had planned to go together. So that he wouldn’t have to deal with the major outcomes alone, I made sure to let the chiefs know about the situation and that no one was at fault. Since that day, I have made it a priority to have a written record at my desk of all I need to get done in a given day, just in case something similar to what happened before happens again.

Working Inclusively

I have always been a considerate person who is thoughtful when it comes to a variety of delicate matters. I made it a priority to establish solid working connections with my co-workers and to stay out of any political intrigue that might arise from my position as an employer. One of my co-workers approached seeking my support. She was faced with an ethical dilemma that forced her to disclose what a colleague, and her friend. In addition, I aided her in carrying out the appropriate steps, which led to improved outcomes. At another time, I was a witness when an employee made statements that were racially insensitive toward some of the staff members based on the ethnicities of those staff members. I decided to address the issue head-on and share my concerns with HR aiming of putting an end to behaviour of a similar nature in the future. As a direct consequence of this, I am provided with the chance to keep positive relationships in the location where I am employed.

 Assessing the Impact of Your Learning and CPD.

The lessons I’ve learned in the corporate world have been invaluable in pointing me in the right path for my own development. Since I am skilled at finding solutions to problems, I was able to arbitrate and resolve several conflicts that arose within the company where I previously worked. Each person had their own tale, and I listened patiently while offering advice on how they may proceed. However, the company might suffers in terms of its image and reputation since I am sluggish to make judgements. My lack of organizing skills is something I am well aware of and am constantly working on it.

Key datesWhat did you do?Why?What did you learn from this?How have/will you use this?
Jan 2022- June 2022I was only starting to learn the ropes of working remotely.After the global spread of Covid-19, it was mandated that businesses adopt new strategies for dealing with the health mandates such as social distancing. The lack of or minimal supervision in my new workplace helped me become more adaptable to the change.To guarantee that discipline is upheld even when my supervisor is not around, I will follow the ideas I have learned.
Jan 2022- July 2022A course in effective communicationIn order to effectively communicate with my co-workers, I sought knowledge on how to do so tactfully and not come across as overly critical.Improved my communication skills whilst keeping an ethical mind-set towards my work.I hope to contribute this skill to the firm’s future problem-solving initiative

My expertise has enabled me to appreciate the nature of my difficulties. When juggling multiple active projects, I now know how to set priorities effectively. When planning out my day, I always make sure to account for the time I have available. This would help me become more organized and efficient, which in turn would help me finish my tasks on time. Applying everything I’ve learned from CPD, I know I can only improve.

References

Arnold, D. G., & Bowie, N. E. (2019). Ethical theory and business. Cambridge University Press.

Berti, M., Jarvis, W., Nikolova, N., & Pitsis, A. (2021). Embodied phronetic pedagogy: Cultivating ethical and moral capabilities in postgraduate business students. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 20(1), 6-29.

CIPD. 2019. Ethics at work: an employer’s guide | Guide | CIPD. [online] Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/culture/ethics/ethics-work-guide#gref  [Accessed 18 June 2022].

CIPD People Profession. 2022. Ethical practice | CIPD Profession Map. [online] Available at: https://peopleprofession.cipd.org/profession-map/core-behaviours/ethical-practice  [Accessed 18 June 2022].

 Cronin, B., Perra, N., Rocha, L. E. C., Zhu, Z., Pallotti, F., Gorgoni, S., … & De Vita, R. (2021). Ethical implications of network data in business and management settings. Social Networks, 67, 29-40.

Ferreira, J., Mueller, J., & Papa, A. (2018). Strategic knowledge management: theory, practice and future challenges. Journal of knowledge management.

Kabeyi, M. J. (2018). Ethical and unethical leadership issues, cases, and dilemmas with case studies. International Journal of Applied Research4(8), 373-379.

Lašáková, A., Remišová, A., & Bohinská, A. (2022). Barriers to ethical business in Slovakia: an exploratory study based on insights of top representatives of business and employer organizations. European Journal of International Management, 17(1), 86-113.

Roth, W. (2018). The roots and future of management theory: A systems perspective. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203736067 

Tursunbayeva, A., Pagliari, C., Di Lauro, S., & Antonelli, G. (2021). The ethics of people analytics: risks, opportunities and recommendations. Personnel Review.

Drawing on work or personal examples, analyse how you would/have made an engaging and well-informed contribution to discussions to support the application of good people practice (1.3)

I was once tasked with creating awareness at my workplace on good people practises and its benefit to the organisation’s success to better help my co-workers grasp the concept of people practices. I began by explaining the term people practises.It encompasses handling workers at all points of their employment. People practices include things like responding to employee concerns, determining learning needs, developing and implementing company policies, building and evaluating talent pools, analysing the data, and recruiting and training new personnel. I then proceeded to explaining some examples of good people practices including

  1. Giving employees a voice in how their work is conducted and how the workplace is run as a whole.
  2. Having clearly defined employee duties and responsibilities 
  3. Inspiring workers to work well together by teaching them how to have productive and respectful conversations, and offer mutual support and cooperate (Cronin et al., 2021).
  4. Enhance workers’ skills through support workers with access to learning and development opportunities.
  5. Motivate them more, give them constructive criticism, and offer encouragement all through performance management systems that are transparent, objective, helpful, and efficient (Arnold & Bowie, 2019).

A company’s ability to succeed in its industry is directly correlated to the quality of the management it employs (Cronin et al., 2021). Possible benefits from excellent people management include: Increased productivity, each employee completing their roles efficiently due to regular communication, employees who are always up for challenges, exceptional team work, and decreased turnover rates (Kabeyi, 2018). Finally I elaborate on a few steps on how our organisation can adopt goof people practices for instance;

  • Create effective HR policies and procedures that are tailored towards the organisation’s goals and objectives through regular reviews, updates, and internal communications.
  • You should periodically review any employment contract to ensure they are up to date with the laws and the business goals (Kabeyi, 2018).
  • Making sure managers have been properly trained on good management practices.
  • Take into account the advantages of a satisfied and involved staff, as they will be less inclined to file employment disputes.

Question 11

You are asked to critically evaluate management development activity in you organisation. What are its main strengths and weaknesses? What ONE proposal would you make to improve its effectiveness? Justify your answer.

Introduction

Organisations are increasingly realizing that investing in management development is necessary to remain competitive in a dynamic work setting. Over the past decade, organisations and their management have witnessed significant changes in the workplace, including rapid technical advancements, more internationalization, shifting organizational structures, and significant shifts in career dynamics. When it comes to management development initiatives, organizations have a number of options ranging from informal to formal, as well as from organization-directed to those that are self-directed.

Critically evaluation of the Work Rotation Program

Our organisation has been acknowledged as one of the firms in the United Kingdom that has implemented work rotation as a training program. This strategy was established as a result of the organization’s risk assessment, which revealed a lack of sufficient talent to grow and dominate the industry while also achieving world-class productivity levels. As a result, they implemented a legally mandated job rotation policy to empower employees to further their careers and explore their diverse interests.

Using a rotation policy has proven to be effective as it brings every member of the work force together on the same platform, which include board members and senior management, who have also invested a lot of time in strategic approach, machine intelligence, and machine learning programs, where they have picked up new skills such as language and algorithms programming, and most importantly, have gained an understanding of how these skills can be developed internally. This policy illustrates the employers’ value for their employees as it acknowledges the direct correlation between the employees’ well-being and success to the organization’s competitive edge. The policy has served a crucial role in the development of a comprehensive wellness strategy that fosters a self-leadership approach in which employees are empowered to take control of their own well-being with the assistance of peers, line managers, and senior executives.

By taking charge of their own state of well-being, Management also encourage their employees to maximize their potential that would enable them to flourish, stay relevant and be productive in career and personal lifestyle. This job rotation strategy has proven to be effective in assisting the organization in identifying individual KSAs (knowledge, skills and attitude). Additionally, this strategy has resulted in employees increasing their knowledge, abilities, and qualifications through supplemental training and general education. These developments have enhanced performance in their roles, hence boosting job security (Dwianto et al., 2020).

Strengths of the Work Rotation Program

The job rotation does help in increasing the employees’ motivation. The introduction of the Flexible Work Arrangement (FWA) within the organisation have create flexible conditions that will enable the firm to balance their objectives of achieving a highly productive, harmonious work environment that is responsive to the changing professional and personal needs of today’s workforce.

Moreover, by exposing employees to a range of job specialties and roles, the policy promotes employee engagement while decreasing attrition. This enhances their level of satisfaction while decreasing boredom from having to execute the same duty on a daily basis. As a result, the competencies and aligned with requirements where resources are directed where and when they are required. For example, it is used to examine employees’ potential and appoints them to a position where their abilities, competencies, and qualities are utilized to the greatest extent possible in the organization.

Additionally, work rotation enables individuals to explore their career interests. Throughout the integration of these rotation policy it is evident that; employees are unaware of their desired careers of choice until they are assigned to a specific position. For an example, job rotation or exposure to other activities will allow them to determine what they are strong at and what they prefer doing, as well as the opportunity to discover underlying interests and capabilities. In addition, it also aids in inspiring employees to cope with new obstacles. When employees are introduced to new occupations or allocated new duties, they will undoubtedly deal with new challenges successfully and be motivated to perform better, hence culturing a spirit of healthy competition within the organisation. In general, this strategy has helped to boost employee engagement by assuring them of job security despite current rapid technological advancement (Lee et al, 2020)

Weaknesses of Work Rotation Program

The job rotation program is often costly and time-consuming. Moving an employee to a new position requires a learning curve that depletes the organization’s resources and time. Most probably, the employees will need a level of training before they can commence their new position. Additionally, some employees may be uncomfortable with the rotation program as employees currently perfect with their job feel they may mess up with their progress. Furthermore, the rotation program does not guarantee an increase in employee engagement. The majority of employees may be excellent in their daily job routines but are uncomfortable with learning new skills (Shiffer et al., 2018).

A proposal to improve the work rotation program

Depending on the business and the time spent in each job, rotation programs will vary in size and formality. Our company should consider developing a job rotation program and invest in a systematic job rotation program. The program is critical because it increases the potential for improved product quality by allowing employees to explore various career options and reducing stagnation and boredom in the workplace. The organization should develop clear lines for who will be qualifies for the program and whether workers will be bounded to certain job classifications or will be able to work in any position. Workers in non-exempt positions, and those in managerial and professional positions, should rotate jobs. Furthermore, it is critical to have an explicit knowledge of which abilities will be developed by putting an employee through the job-rotation process and involving the employee and supervisors in designing specific work rotations so that mutual expectations are apparent. Understanding why a work rotation program is being implemented in the first place is necessary for its successful execution. On the other hand, work rotation program can increase workload and reduce productivity for the rotating worker and other workers who must pick up the slack.

Reference

Shiffer, D., Minonzio, M., Dipaola, F., Bertola, M., Zamuner, A.R., Dalla Vecchia, L.A., Solbiati, M., Costantino, G., Furlan, R. and Barbic, F., 2018. Effects of clockwise and counterclockwise job shift work rotation on sleep and work-life balance on hospital nurses. International journal of environmental research and public health15(9), p.2038.

Lee, E.A.L., Black, M.H., Falkmer, M., Tan, T., Sheehy, L., Bölte, S. and Girdler, S., 2020. “We can see a bright future”: Parents’ perceptions of the outcomes of participating in a strengths-based program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders50(9), pp.3179-3194.

Dwianto, A.S., Madhakomala, M.P. and Hamidah, M., 2020, October. The Influence of Work Experience on Job Rotation (Case Study on Post Office Manager in Regional IV Jakarta). In Brawijaya International Conference on Multidisciplinary Sciences and Technology (BICMST 2020) (pp. 37-40). Atlantis Press.

AC 1.1 Assesses the notion of Evidence-Based Practice.

Evidence based practice is based on the concept that good decision making is attained through drawing on the best available evidence and critical thinking(CIPD, 2020).It entails use of verifiable basis to find solutions to dealing with people management The decisison is evaluated against available data in an organisation..Evidence based decisions tend to yield the desired outcome that impacts an organisations practise. The evidence-based approach makes use of critical thinking abilities and accessible evidence to make decisions about specific human resource concerns. According to Young (2020), sound decision-making requires critical thinking and a careful examination of the available data.

Additionally, evidence-based practice makes use of alternative decision-making models, such as the rational model. This paradigm entails the application of factual data and gradual procedures  to arrive at a decision (Uzonwanne, 2016). The summary of the rational decision-making model is shown in the diagram below.

Figure 1: Rational Decision-Making Model (Lumenlearning.com, 2019)

How evidence-based approaches can be used to aid in the development of sound judgments and decision-making

Evidence-based techniques are essential for aiding sound decision making since they reduce the likelihood of making erroneous judgments. In the lack of evidence, it is reasonable to predict unreasonable and unreliable managerial judgments. Managers are prone to bias and inaccuracy when making judgments based on their prior experiences or popular management methods, and this is especially true for senior executives. As stated in an article published by the Center for Evidence-Based Management (CEBM), all employees at all levels of the organisation must make decisions based on the best available evidence. According to Uzonwanne (2016), making decisions on the basis of evidence is deemed morally correct.

It is possible to utilise an evidence-based approach to enhance effective decision making and judgement by raising responsibility at the organisational level and by increasing transparency. The vast majority of managerial decisions have an impact on the overall performance of the organisation, whether in a positive or negative way. Evidence that has had reliability and validity checked has a positive impact on both individuals and organisations. It is through this technique that a manager can make the best decision feasible, which can be supported by organisational data, professional expertise, or findings from scientific study.

AC1.3 An explanation of an organisation’s products and/or services and main customers

SLIDE 9

John Good Shipping Ltd. is active in the shipping and logistics, storage and distribution, and business travel industries. The company offer sea freight, freight forwarding, LCL shipping, FCL container shipping, vehicle shipping, liner agency, port agency, roll-on/roll-off shipping, truck shipping, and project forwarding (John Good Group, 2022). It also provides road haulage, customs checks, business trips, air freight, marine insurance, supply chain management, and road freight services between Finland and Hull. The company provides its services to large blue-chip corporations in addition to small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in a variety of industries, including the automobile, foods, furniture, packaging, and pharmaceutical sectors. It also has representation in key ports all over the world, including India and the Middle East, so that it can deliver its services to customers there.

AC 1.3 Assess a range of employee voice tools and approaches to drive employee engagement.

An organisation with a compelling voice strategy is in a win-win situation. When businesses incorporate employee voices into their business strategy, they stand to gain from innovation, growth, and productivity. Employees also feel valued and report higher rates of job satisfaction, thus recording improvement (Joyce et al., 2020). Many tools and strategies are incorporated in an effective employee voice strategy, including workplace meetings, communication initiatives, surveys and polls, employee feedback, email communication, and social functions.

Surveys and Polls

Surveys are practical to an organisation as they provide insight into employee engagement and lifecycle and offer immediate feedback on issues that affect the organisation. These surveys include census surveys, regular pulse feedback, new joiner surveys, and 360 feedback. The main advantage of using surveys is that they offer honest and immediate feedback that helps managers understand the organisation’s issues and make informed decision-making (Joyce et al., 2020).  The main disadvantage is that it is impossible to determine the accuracy of a survey unless it is repeated severally hence ensuring that the results reflect the reality.

Communication initiative

They include channels where employees can voice their issues directly, such as workplace meetings, listening groups, and social functions. These tools are valuable in getting immediate feedback on employee issues through survey polls (Joyce et al., 2020). The process incorporates upward, and downward communications as employees communicate directly with management. Solutions can also be easily be assessed, thus preventing the escalation of issues.

Online platforms

By offering online discussions and creating platforms for posting suggestions and sharing ideas in detail, online platforms have become valuable for employee voice. They also provide organisational network analysis and social media review data. These platforms offer employees the freedom to voice their opinions and receive feedback. Employers can interact with employees, engage in one-on-one meetings, award rewards and bonuses and offer transparency on performance. These platforms include 15five and Reflektive. Social media platforms are beneficial in providing better data insights and flexibility. However, their main disadvantage is that they call for increased employee guidelines for usage to eliminate employee distractions.

Question 12

Identify THREE distinct steps that managers can take to encourage greater innovation and creativity in their organisations. Which do you think would be most effective in your sector or industry? Justify your answer.

Employers aim to acquire competent employees who will assist in driving the organisation towards their goals and objectives, thus achieving their organisational success. However, employers seek the qualities of innovation and creativity in their employees to stimulate creativity and help the organisation explore new and unknown territories in the industry, thus fostering productivity and organisational performance (Kremer et al., 2019). In many contemporary organisations, employees are presented with the opportunity to present new creative ideas and innovative business approaches to promote organisational success. Therefore, three distinct steps managers can take to promote more incredible innovations and creativity among their employees in the organisations include;

Creating a Supportive Working Environment

A supportive work environment is critical to promoting creativity and innovation among employees. Therefore, to foster a supportive work environment, managers should refrain from criticizing their employee’s ideas, whether good or bad, as it demoralizes them from trying again. Furthermore, managers should create a flexible working environment for the employees, including flexible schedules and regular breaks (Kremer et al., 2019). When employees are allowed to rest, they can relax their minds, which can be a great habour of good ideas (Moussa et al., 2018). Giving employees room to rest allows them to get through blocks and develop creative solutions and drive towards organisational success, for they are not constantly too exhausted to think. Furthermore, a supportive work environment encompasses the manager offering time and resources to the employees to adequately equip them with creativity and the ability to explore new horizons for innovative ideas that would come in handy in helping the organisation keep its competitors at bay.

Compensating Creativity and Innovation

Rewarding employees for their efforts is a great way to encourage them to become more creative and innovative. Whether verbally or financially, compensating employees is vital in developing a work culture that encourages them to constantly think of new ideas that eventually contribute to organisational success (Matsuo, 2022). For instance, if an employee who presented a practical idea that has boosted organisational productivity is rewarded through a bonus, salary increase, or promotion, employees will also be encouraged to seek out such ideas, which results in organisational growth. Compensating employees also shows the employees that their ideas are valued and respected in the organisation ((Kremer et al., 2019). When employees feel valued and respected, they are motivated to do their best as they feel they are a vital component of the organisation. Therefore, managers must ensure that they regularly offer rewards to employees who offer ideas that result in organisational productivity, success, and growth.

Providing Employees with Training and Learning Opportunities

Another component contributing to employee creativity and innovation is regular training and learning. Providing employees with career development opportunities is essential to sharpen their skills. Thus, they are better positioned to be more creative and innovative. Employees who lack training or are rarely offered learning opportunities to be conversant with emerging trends often find it challenging to develop new ideas that steer the organisation toward a new direction (Matsuo, 2022). Therefore, it is essential to offer learning opportunities to employees through hands-on lessons, seminars, and lectures. Employees are more equipped to adapt to changing and improving work environments when equipped with training and development programs, becoming more creative and innovative ((Matsuo, 2022)). Therefore, the employees can be more equipped and motivated to develop new and creative ideas for any organization’s challenges.

The Most Effective Step in the Marketing Industry

Creativity and innovation are critical in the marketing sector as they allow a company to acquire an advantage over its competitors in congested markets. Being creative and occasionally thinking outside the box may pay off quite well in the marketing profession. Developing tactics that will assist the marketing team in pushing boundaries and creating big ideas will aid the organisation in moving to the next stage of development (Balietti, and Riedl, 2021). Managers must first establish a supportive working atmosphere to foster more incredible innovation and originality in the marketing business, which can be achieved by listening to the marketing team’s problems, assisting them as needed, and offering emotional support. Managers can also establish open office hours during which the marketing team can share challenges and difficulties they are encountering in the field and how they might assist them in succeeding (Allahar, 2018).

Marketers, for example, are frequently confronted with diverse and compartmentalized data as a result of rapid digital revolutions, which stifle their creativity and innovation. By discussing these issues with their supervisors, marketers can develop more creative and novel ways to engage with customer data. Creating a conducive atmosphere marketing environment also requires managers to communicate clearly to the marketing team their duties and responsibilities in ensuring that they innovatively and creatively engage customers.

Task Two

Activity 1: The Context of Professional Development

How the role of a people professional is changing?

Over time, the primary focus of people practices has shifted from labour resource management to the people needs maagement. The strategy has developed to become transactional, and most companies now place greater value on their contributions to HR  (CIPD, 2022). The trade-off, however, is worth it because the end result is outstanding. The health and safety of employees is a top priority, and the workspace is a positive environment in which to work. Human resources roles have been restructured becoming more strategic and in line with the company’s aims (Roth, 2018). As a result of its development, the role now encompasses both the implementation of talent strategy and the promotion of organizational objectives (CIPD, 2022).

What impact are these changes having on our CPD?

Professionals can build and improve their presentation skills by participating in continuous professional development (CPD), which also aids in the reduction of knowledge gaps and provides a competitive advantage in circumstances where one is required. Given the overall changes in the nature of the employment relationship, the strategies for professional learning and development will require a modification in order to continue accommodating career models. Managers must be self-assured and competent in order to conduct constructive conversations with individuals in a variety of professional arrangements (CIPD, 2022).

What are the key characteristics of a good-practice CPD?

Continuing professional development (CPD) assesses if an individual’s skills are in line with those of their peers in the same field. (Berti et al., 2021). In addition, (CPD) safeguards and improves the information and skills that professionals are required to provide to their clientele, consumers, and the community at large. This ensures that one is always current with some of the most recent trends in their area of expertise. This not only enhances the quality of life, but also keeps workers motivated to produce quality outcomes.

Activity 2 - Self Assessment

2.1 Self-Assessment using Professional Map Standard

Profession Map StandardPerform well Score 30Perform satisfactorily Score 20Requires further development Score 10Reason for judgement
Make responsible choices about your work, applying professional principles and values 20 My work performance has been exceptional. I’ve encountered numerous circumstances where an individual would be tempted to abandon their work ethics. I did, however, reassure myself of the ethical commitment I made when I joined the team. Respect is always valued by individuals from all walks of life. Work may present me with a small problem-solving challenge with ethical considerations.
Consider the purpose and implications of actions, decisions and people practices for all stakeholders 20 In both non-profit and for-profit organisations, every choice has consequences. Long-term gains and losses are possible outcomes of corporate decisions. All decisions affecting my coworkers will have an immediate effect on me. To achieve success, I must get a deeper understanding of how to include other staff members in my decision-making strategy.
Raise concerns about people practices and policies which are not consistent with values or legislation 20 After spending quality time in the HR department, I’ve developed a number of concerns about the fact that I’ve been here for a while now. Using one’s employer’s property for personal gain is a common occurrence. My managers used to give me orders, but more recently, I’ve been compelled to express my concerns about various workplace difficulties.
Provide explanations and reasons for the choices you make and the advice you provide 20 My one and only objective is to strengthen our position for the truth and our capacity to fight for what is right, even if this does not have a positive impact on the people or the organization. I will make it a priority to put into practice the many diverse hypotheses that do research on the factors that I find compelling.
Demonstrate professionalism and consistency in what you say and do in order to build trust   Since day one, I’ve made it a priority to care deeply about my colleagues and the other employees within the company. Compassion, trustworthiness, and respect are three fundamental characteristics that have been the driving forces behind my success in life. To succeed professionally, It is essential that my deeds and my words be in agreement with one another at all times. Your confidence in me will help me do a better job in the long run.

The self-analysis was done with reference to the Core behaviour, that is, moral conduct. At work, I always make judgments based on my professional ideas and principles, and I never hesitate to voice my concerns about procedures or practices that I believe run counter to the law or values. In addition, I build a culture of trust among my co-workers by demonstrating consistency and competence in my beliefs. In addition, I completed the official assessment, which enabled me to view my progress through the eyes of my superiors. According to formal assessment, professionalism is my greatest strength, whereas interpersonal communication skills are the areas I need to improve on. In addition, I understood that I lacked ethically sound decision-making abilities. In order to develop great working ties, I must also possess a pleasant manner. As a result, I developed a personal development plan to assess my current abilities and determine how I might improve and expand them. Several learning opportunities exist within the company for me to solve the highlighted concerns. Throughout the entire process, though, my management and co-workers were incredibly supportive of my learning experience.

What do I want/need to learn?What will I do to achieve this?What resources or support will I need?What will my success criteria be?Target dates for review and completion
Decision-making skillsParticipating in meetings while being supervised by more experienced members of the team.Reports and suggestions from colleaguesTo execute successful business plans and undertake required measures3 months
Interpersonal skillsAttending seminars and taking part in group activitiesSupport from co-workers and feedback from customersEstablishing productive associations2.5 months
Communication SkillsImproving one’s ability to interact with other individualsOnline seminars, support from peers, and trainingProviding employees with ethical values in an effective way2 months

Activity 3 – Reflective Practice

Taking Responsibility

In my early years as a professional, I once observed a member of my team engaging in conduct that violated the company’s regulations. However, I was new to the team and had no idea how to handle the matter, I remained silent.  After some time passed, it became apparent that the firm had sustained significant losses due to the incident, and that occurred only after some time elapsed that I understood how lightly I had treated the issue. I realized that regardless of the outcome, I will always pick the course of action that is in my best interest and report occurrences of this sort as soon as I encounter them.

When it came time for me to bear responsibility for my actions, I was instructed to spotlight a team member in relation to the executive meeting incident. Now was the time for me to accept accountability for my conduct. Assuming responsibility becomes necessary at this juncture. I was in such a rush the first time I saw him that I neglected to tell him about the event we had planned to go together. So that he wouldn’t have to deal with the major outcomes alone, I made sure to let the chiefs know about the situation and that no one was at fault. Since that day, I have made it a priority to have a written record at my desk of all I need to get done in a given day, just in case something similar to what happened before happens again.

Working Inclusively

I have always been a considerate person who is thoughtful when it comes to a variety of delicate matters. I made it a priority to establish solid working connections with my co-workers and to stay out of any political intrigue that might arise from my position as an employer. One of my co-workers approached seeking my support. She was faced with an ethical dilemma that forced her to disclose what a colleague, and her friend. In addition, I aided her in carrying out the appropriate steps, which led to improved outcomes. At another time, I was a witness when an employee made statements that were racially insensitive toward some of the staff members based on the ethnicities of those staff members. I decided to address the issue head-on and share my concerns with HR aiming of putting an end to behaviour of a similar nature in the future. As a direct consequence of this, I am provided with the chance to keep positive relationships in the location where I am employed.

 Assessing the Impact of Your Learning and CPD.

The lessons I’ve learned in the corporate world have been invaluable in pointing me in the right path for my own development. Since I am skilled at finding solutions to problems, I was able to arbitrate and resolve several conflicts that arose within the company where I previously worked. Each person had their own tale, and I listened patiently while offering advice on how they may proceed. However, the company might suffers in terms of its image and reputation since I am sluggish to make judgements. My lack of organizing skills is something I am well aware of and am constantly working on it.

Key datesWhat did you do?Why?What did you learn from this?How have/will you use this?
Jan 2022- June 2022I was only starting to learn the ropes of working remotely.After the global spread of Covid-19, it was mandated that businesses adopt new strategies for dealing with the health mandates such as social distancing. The lack of or minimal supervision in my new workplace helped me become more adaptable to the change.To guarantee that discipline is upheld even when my supervisor is not around, I will follow the ideas I have learned.
Jan 2022- July 2022A course in effective communicationIn order to effectively communicate with my co-workers, I sought knowledge on how to do so tactfully and not come across as overly critical.Improved my communication skills whilst keeping an ethical mind-set towards my work.I hope to contribute this skill to the firm’s future problem-solving initiative

My expertise has enabled me to appreciate the nature of my difficulties. When juggling multiple active projects, I now know how to set priorities effectively. When planning out my day, I always make sure to account for the time I have available. This would help me become more organized and efficient, which in turn would help me finish my tasks on time. Applying everything I’ve learned from CPD, I know I can only improve.

References

Arnold, D. G., & Bowie, N. E. (2019). Ethical theory and business. Cambridge University Press.

Berti, M., Jarvis, W., Nikolova, N., & Pitsis, A. (2021). Embodied phronetic pedagogy: Cultivating ethical and moral capabilities in postgraduate business students. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 20(1), 6-29.

CIPD. 2019. Ethics at work: an employer’s guide | Guide | CIPD. [online] Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/culture/ethics/ethics-work-guide#gref  [Accessed 18 June 2022].

CIPD People Profession. 2022. Ethical practice | CIPD Profession Map. [online] Available at: https://peopleprofession.cipd.org/profession-map/core-behaviours/ethical-practice  [Accessed 18 June 2022].

 Cronin, B., Perra, N., Rocha, L. E. C., Zhu, Z., Pallotti, F., Gorgoni, S., … & De Vita, R. (2021). Ethical implications of network data in business and management settings. Social Networks, 67, 29-40.

Ferreira, J., Mueller, J., & Papa, A. (2018). Strategic knowledge management: theory, practice and future challenges. Journal of knowledge management.

Kabeyi, M. J. (2018). Ethical and unethical leadership issues, cases, and dilemmas with case studies. International Journal of Applied Research4(8), 373-379.

Lašáková, A., Remišová, A., & Bohinská, A. (2022). Barriers to ethical business in Slovakia: an exploratory study based on insights of top representatives of business and employer organizations. European Journal of International Management, 17(1), 86-113.

Roth, W. (2018). The roots and future of management theory: A systems perspective. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203736067 

Tursunbayeva, A., Pagliari, C., Di Lauro, S., & Antonelli, G. (2021). The ethics of people analytics: risks, opportunities and recommendations. Personnel Review.

AC 3.3 Explain the skills required for effective grievance and discipline-handling procedures.

If a manager isn’t careful, grievances can spiral out of control if they are not dealt with constructively. It is preferable to acknowledge that there is an issue within the company than to ignore the fact that workers are dissatisfied or unhappy with their work (Joyce et al., 2020). One employee’s grievance can turn into two or more if a manager doesn’t take it seriously, leading to a chain reaction of complaints. The rumours of strikes at Makite solutions stemmed from employees’ perceptions that their complaints had not been acknowledged or taken seriously. To effectively handle grievances, a manager must possess strong listening skills. Finding a solution is nearly impossible if a manager does not listen to the employee’s complaints. Hence, they should have the ability to listen without bias, even to those whose views differ from theirs. They should also show an understanding of the company’s needs in relation to the employee’s complaints. Finally, they must have the ability to speak clearly and honestly with others without demeaning or disparaging the other person, which is essential.

Reference

Anon, Collective employment law. Oxford Reference. Available at: https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095624104 [Accessed March 31, 2022].

Baillien, E., Griep, Y., Vander Elst, T., & De Witte, H. (2018). The relationship between organisational change and being a perpetrator of workplace bullying: A three-wave longitudinal study. Work & Stress, 1-20.

CIPD. 2022. The future of employee voice | CIPD. [online] Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/work/future-voice#gref [Accessed 31 March 2022].

Employment Law | CIPD. CIPD. Retrieved 31 March 2022, from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/emp-law#gref.

Findlaw, 2021. Mediation vs. Arbitration vs. litigation: What’s the difference? Findlaw. Available at: https://www.findlaw.com/adr/mediation/mediation-vs-arbitration-vs-litigation-whats-the-difference.html  [Accessed March 31, 2022].

Hannan, M. (2019), Employment tribunal claims rise after abolishing ‘illegal … Available at: https://www.thenational.scot/news/17694713.employment-tribunal-claims-rise-abolishing-illegal-fees/ [Accessed March 30, 2022].

Harcourt, M., Gall, G., Wilson, M., & Rubenstein, K. (2021). The potential of a union default to influence the preferences and choices of non-union workers in unionised workplaces. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 0143831X211030346.

Hodgkinson, A. (2018). Employee involvement and participation in the organisational change decision: Illawarra and ­Australian patterns. In Models of employee participation in a changing global

Jha, N., Potnuru, R. K. G., Sareen, P., & Shaju, S. (2019). Employee voice, engagement and organisational effectiveness: a mediated model. European Journal of Training and Development environment (pp. 247-271). Routledge.

Joyce, S., Neumann, D., Trappmann, V., & Umney, C. (2020). A global struggle: worker protest in the platform economy. ETUI Research Paper-Policy Brief2.

Kelliher, C., Richardson, J., & Boiarintseva, G. (2019). All of work? All of life? Reconceptualising work‐life balance for the 21st century. Human Resource Management Journal29(2), 97-112.

MUKIIRA, E.K., 2020. Relationship between Employee Voice Strategies and Performance of Public Health Facilities in Imenti North Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, KeMU).

Suff, R. (2021). Dismissal Procedures | Factsheets | CIPD. CIPD. Retrieved 17 February 2022, from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/emp-law/dismissal/factsheet#gref

Suff, R. (2021). Employee Relations | Factsheets | CIPD. CIPD. Retrieved 17 February 2022, from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/relations/employees/factsheet#gref/

Trade Union Recognition & Industrial Action Q&As | CIPD. CIPD. (2021). Retrieved 17 February 2022, from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/relations/employees/trade-unions-questions.

3CO04 Assignment Examples

TASK ONE - BRIEFING PAPER

Employee lifecycle can be defined as the critical stage’s employees go through as they engage with a particular organisation (Persion.com 2021; SpriggHR 2020). There are six distinct stages of employee engagement with a particular organisation. These stages are attraction, recruitment, onboarding, development, retention, and separation (See Fig. 1). According to Persion.com (2021), these stages are passed chronologically. The publication also adds that every stage of the employee lifecycle matters and thus should not be ignored. Now shifting our attention to the attraction (first stage), the process starts immediately after an employee is exposed to a particular brand. This is the key reason that instilling a positive corporate culture is critical.

 Doing that enables potential employees to identify and choose your organisation. The next employee lifecycle is recruitment. During this stage, employers advertise job positions on different platforms to attract their desired talents. A good advertisement entices potential candidates to your employer’s brand (Persion.com 2021). Frameworks such as flexible working, medical cover and retirement benefits are critical to a successful advertisement programme. Regarding onboarding, the stage entails helping new employees blend into organisational culture and truly become successful members of the team. One critical way to achieve this is by identifying and communicating company core values. In summary, onboarding entails showing employees a clear path to success by sharing the organisation’s core values, vision, and mission. Regarding retention, which is one of the most critical stages, the stage entails helping employees achieve their goals. Human resource managers can achieve this by keeping accurate records of the employees’ ambitions, progress, and success (Sandhya and Kumar 2011). These actions help employees become happier and more motivated.

Now shifting our attention to career development, once employees are settled and happy, employers can consider how strategic professional development can help get the best out of their employees. This can be achieved through learning and development and sharing knowledge with junior employees (CIPD Factsheet 2021). The last stage is known as separation. The stage occurs when employees part ways with their employers for various reasons such as retirement, seeking personal opportunities, or enticement from rival companies. The people professions are involved in every stage of the employee lifecycle. The key roles of HR practitioners in employees’ lifecycle include; ensuring organisations follow structure, values, and culture in every employee lifecycle process. Another key role is developing an effective recruitment policy. Additionally, HR practitioners ensure hired individuals have similar values as those of their companies. Another critical role of the HR practitioner is interacting with employees and identifying their needs as well as identifying key reasons for employees leaving the organisation.

AC 1.1 Different stages of the employee lifecycle and the role of people professionals in the lifecycle.

AC 1.2 Different ways in which information for specified roles can be prepared.

The successful recruitment process uses data and evidence to make decisions in various aspects, such as identifying and recruiting the right individuals (Peopledatalabs.com 2021). There are numerous ways through which information can be collected and prepared. The first way is through a job description. This entails describing key essential elements of a given job position in a given organisation. For example, a line manager job description explains the job position’s roles and responsibilities. Another special way information for specified roles can be prepared through person specification. Specifically, it entails a detailed explanation of skills, qualifications, knowledge and experience that a particular job applicant must possess to be considered for a particular job.  The third way is through observation. This entails observing a candidate to identify their suitability for a particular job. In specific, it entails taking notes or sometimes recording a person’s activity to understand better if they are suitable for the job position. An interview or an engagement with a particular candidate is also critical in unearthing whether they are qualified for a particular job position. Lastly, information for a specified role can be obtained through background checks. Specifically, background checks help identify critical information about a particular candidate (Shrm.org 2022a). This information includes criminal records, among many others, that are critical in deciding on the candidate.

AC 1.3 Different recruitment methods and when it is appropriate to use them.

There exist numerous types of recruitment methods that different organisations can utilise to attract the most suitable candidates. It is essential to understand that not every job has similar requirements. Due to that, employers must adopt different hiring tactics that match their environment as well as appeal to the candidates they are searching for (Brighthr.com 2020). The recruitment process can be categorised as either external or internal. External recruitment entails going outside the organisation to attract individuals you have never met. On the other hand, internal recruitment entails filling vacancies within a particular organisation from the existing workforce. The first recruitment methods are internal and external advertisements.

 Internal advertisement is vital when employers want to fill vacant positions quickly and cheaply as well as train new talents within the organisation. On the other hand, external recruitment is vital while attracting individuals with essential skill sets that are not found within the organisation (Shrm.org 2022b). Another critical recruitment method is the use of agencies. This method can be vital for organisations that require faster hiring and highly skilled candidates. Another critical recruitment method is electronic recruitment. Also known as online recruitment, the method utilises web-based technology for the various processes of attracting, recruiting, and potential onboarding candidates. The method is critical for organisations that want to save time, shorten the hiring process, and consider the broad scope of candidates (HR-ON 2019).

AC 1.4 Factors to consider when deciding on the content of copy used in recruitment methods.

Attracting top talents requires consideration of various materials and approaches. These materials and approaches are vital in persuading potential candidates to work for a particular organisation. Some of the key materials and approaches for luring top talents include;

An attractive job advertisement: In specific, an attractive job advertisement possesses essential details of the job vacancies for the potential applicants. The key objective of an attractive job environment is to convince potential applicants to apply for the available job positions. This advertisement can be shared on various channels such as asocial media platforms and newspapers.

An attractive reward package entails lists of rewards that a particular company offers for the employees’ responsibilities and job roles. An attractive reward package entails both monetary and non-monetary aspects to attract and retain top employees. Some of the key monetary rewards include paid leave.

A positive organisation image: Arguably, a positive organisation image entails customers’ perception of a particular organisation. In specific, a positive organisation image entails a combination of ideas and impressions that potential clients attribute to the organisation. Organisations can build a positive image through activities such as diversity hiring and effective learning and development policies.

AC 2.1 Different selection methods and when to use them

Employee selection can be defined as the process of acquiring and assessing information from job applicants in order to make a decision on selecting who to hire (Resourcesforemployers.com 2019). Crucial employee selection methods include;

Screening applications: According to Indeed.com (2021), screening applications is a multi-step approach used to find the most suitable candidates for specific job positions. The process entails screening the right candidates from the large talent pool. During this process, employers determine whether it is appropriate to orchestrate an official interview to learn more about a given candidate.

Developing shortlists: Shortlisting occurs after screening and can be defined as the process of identifying the right candidates from a particular applicant pool. During the process, applicants who meet the job position requirement are recommended to further assessments such as interviews.

Candidate pre-employment testing: Candidate pre-employment testing entails assessing whether a particular candidate can complete specific required tasks as well as gauging candidates’ reactions to more diverse situations. This facilitates a standardised method for evaluating and scoring a particular candidate’s skills against quantified results so as to compare with other applicants. Key pre-employment tests include knowledge, skills, and personality tests (Smartrescruiter.com 2015).

Employee interviews: An interview allows the selection panel to assess candidates’ strengths, skills attitudes, among many other aspects that are critical for a particular job position. There are many forms of interviews, such as face-to-face interviews, board interviews, and non-directive interviews, web-conferencing, among many others (Chand 2012).

AC 2.4 The selection records that need to be retained

According to SWhrconsulting.com (2019), one way of improving the human resource department is by embracing record keeping. The article adds that good record keeping can facilitate employee adjustments resulting in greater employee satisfaction and improved productivity. For instance, HR managers should store essential selection records such as interview notes and assessment scores. These records can be instrumental in making vital HR decisions, such as drafting learning and development policies. The records can also be vital for internal hiring as well as identifying employees’ skill gaps. Additionally, keeping section records can effectively monitor performance and productivity levels. This can be instrumental where HR managers are assessing steps for improving their organisation’s productivity. However, HR managers need to ensure that employees’ records are stored in a secure location and kept strictly confidential. Access to such records should only be limited to those with a legitimate need as dictated by law (Shrm.org 2021c).

AC 2.5 A letter of appointment

Letter of Appointment

Letter of Appointment

Date

Name

Address

Dear (Candidates Name)

We refer to your recent interview for the position mentioned above and are pleased to inform you that we have found you suitable to fill the position with our organisation effective from (Date of reporting). Below are our terms and conditions:

  • Remuneration: The salary offered for the above position
  • Probation Period: The probation period that an applicant needs to serve once they join the organisation
  • Working Hours: The time a new candidate is expected to be at work from Monday to Friday (Including lunch breaks and off days)
  • Leave Policy: The number of leaves an employee will be granted throughout the year. This entails sick leaves, maternal/paternal leaves, earned leaves and any other leave that an organisation offers.
  • Notice Period Clause: This refers to the timeframe by which an employee should notify an organisation if they desire to part ways with the company

(Employee’s Name)                         (Name of the individual providing the letter)

(Signature)                                          (Signature)

Letter of non-appointment

Letter of non-Appointment

Date

Name

Address

Dear (Candidate’s Name)

We would like to thank you for taking the time to meet with our team regarding the [the role title] role at [Organisation’s Name]. We were very honoured to learn more about your skills and achievements.

Unfortunately, I regret to tell you that our team did not appoint you for further consideration.

I regret to inform you that competition for jobs at (Company’s name) is always very tight and we often have to make very difficult choices. However, I assure you that we will continue keeping your resume for future consideration that suits your qualification and experience.

I will be happy and available to answer any questions regarding your application and interviews.

Thank you once again for your interest in (Organisation’s name). I also wish you the best of luck with your job search.

Regards

(Name of individual sending the letter)

TASK TWO - SIMULATED INTERVIEW

PERSON SPECIFICATION

Post Title: PEOPLE ASSISTANT
EssentialDesirable
Knowledge and qualifications 
Evidence-based practice Valuing people Workforce planning Human Resources Management Systems (HRIS) Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) Training and Development skills Decision-making skills  Good communicator Cooperative Team player Multi-tasker Shows empathy
Experience  
2+ years of administration role;CIPD LEVEL 5 Certificate;Experience in workforce planning  
Skills and Competencies  
Leadership skillsExcellent communication and negotiation skillsEthical PracticeKnowledge of diversity and inclusionTime management  Solving problemsThe ability to consult with colleagues and junior employees.  

SHORTLISTING SELECTION CRITERIA (MATRIX)

School/ Directorate/ DepartmentDepartment
Job Title:Criteria Does not mention criteria at allMention criteria but no evidence/ example Mention criteria with weak evidence/ example Mention criteria with very good example / Strong evidence  
Job Reference no.:
Shortlisting Panel Member
APPLICANT NAME PERSON SPECIFICATION CRITERIAOmar HassanJohn StonesDavid BeckhamMercy WilliamsStacy Dash
Knowledge and Qualifications     
Evidence-based practise33312
CIPD Level 533033
Workforce planning  33333
Experience     
2+ years of administration role00033
Work experience in the similar role33033
Skills and Competencies     
Excellent communication33333
Leadership skills32033
Ethical Practice13023
Time management33333
Total2223122426

Interview Questions and Notes

Interviewer: I would first wish to thank you for attending the interview. Briefly tell me about yourself.

Interviewee: I am ambitious and driven. I thrive on difficulties and constantly set personal goals to ensure I have something to strive toward. I enjoy making new people and learning about their jobs and way of life. Bonding with new people has never been a challenge because I make them feel comfortable around me. From my point of view, this skill is vital and is especially fundamental when onboarding new employees. New hire turnover statistics dropped from 88% to 65% at my previous job position.

Interviewer: What are your top strengths and weaknesses in managing people?

I put prioritise and advocate for employee needs before anything else. I also believe in open and honest communication where everyone has the right to be heard and express their feelings. I also believe embrace equality. Additionally, I support employees to achieve their full potential through mentoring and coaching. While I believe in everyone taking responsibility for their action, I am very conscious of my propensity to criticise or correct employees from minority communities. Although this impacts the chances of team success, I try to use my expertise by sending corrections to the employees during general meetings. 

Interviewer: How would you lead a team while at the same time coordinating your schedule?

Interview: I am an organised person who takes pride in crossing things off the list. I categorise my tasks into daily, weekly, monthly, and annual arrangements before deciding how to do them. I also advocate for my employees to do the same and emphasise this by meeting with my employees at least once a week to discuss upcoming events and tasks.

Interviewer: How do you keep up to date with people’s professional trends?

Interviewee: I am a member of numerous human resource professional associations. I also listen to THE HR podcasts. I also pursue development and keep up to date with HR trends by enrolling to free professional development classes. For instance, I have a certificate in modern conflict resolution from Harvard Business School.

Interviewer: What qualifies you as the best candidate for the post of people assistant?

Interviewee: The insight I gained about your organisation was fascinating, and more than willing to work for your company if accorded a chance. Helping employees achieve their best is what I am passionate about; being a people professional enables me to achieve this. I am more willing to help your employees achieve their full potential and translate that into increased productivity. I helped my previous company increase their sales and lower its turnover from 88% to 78%. I am certain that I can do the same in your organisation if accorded a chance.

Interviewer: What aspirations do you have for this position?

Interviewee: I look forward to using my knowledge and skills to bolster employee performance and solve organisation issues facing the HR department. While I am aware that cannot be achieved without challenges; I am eager to discover solutions and build a strong team.

Interview notes

The interviewee has strong managerial capabilities. His precise examples demonstrate his excellent leadership skills. He is skilled at working with people and adopting evidence-based solutions. The candidate also exhibits high ethical standards as well as intensive knowledge of diversity and inclusion. The candidate is also a good communicator and listener; the organisation will definitely gain a lot from her extensive knowledge and skills.

TASK THREE - GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

AC 3.1 An explanation of the importance of achieving work-life balance with the employment relationship with an overview of the regulations relevant to work-life balance

According to Sanfilippo (2022), creating a harmonious work-life balance is critical to improving not only employees’ physical, emotional and mental well-being as well as their careers. Sanfilippo (2022) defines work-life balance as the state of equilibrium when an individual equally prioritises work and personal demands. According to CIPD (2019), poor work-life balance is one of the undermining attempts to improve job quality in the UK. Three in five (60%) employees interviewed in the CIPD (2019) survey stated that longer working hours disrupted their family life balance. There are numerous benefits associated with long working hours. The first benefit of work-life balance is that it reduces employee turnover. When employees are satisfied, they are less likely to leave their organisation. Additionally, offering flexible working options to workers makes their lives easier and results in increased productivity.

For instance, some employees are more active during the day while others are more active during the night. Thus, allowing them to work at their most suitable time will increase productivity. Furthermore, work-life balance increases staff morale. Regarding that, when employees experience a better work-life balance, they are more likely to put more effort into their job positions (IRIS 2018). Apart from work-balance initiatives offered by different regulations, there are also vital regulations relating to the same. Some key work-life balance regulations include holidays, mandatory rest periods, and maternal and paternal leaves, among many others. For instance, under the UK’s Statutory Maternity Leave, eligible employees can take up to 52 weeks of maternity leave (Gov.uk 2022). Additionally, almost all employees across the UK are legally entitled to 5.6 weeks of paid leave in a year (Gov.uk 2022).

AC 3.2 The concept of well-being in the workplace and why it is essential

Employee well-being can be termed as the overall mental, physical, and economic health of employees within a particular organisation. Bolstering employee well-being at the workplace is vital for people within a particular organisation (CIPD Factsheet 2022). In fact, championing better work and working lives is the heart of the CIPD Profession Map (2022). The CIPD Factsheet (2022) further shows that facilitating a healthy working environment helps employees to flourish and reach their maximum potential. Specifically, a healthy working environment entails creating a clear environment that actively bolsters the state of contentment, which benefits both employees and their organisations. Recently, mental health has grown to become among the key focus of health and well-being activities (CIPD Health and Wellbeing Report 2022). According to the CIPD Factsheet (2022), investing in employees’ well-being can result in increased resilience, increased productivity, improved employee engagement, as well as reduced sickness-related absenteeism. Additionally, employee well-being initiatives are also instrumental in creating a happier workforce (Wellneux.com 2018).

 Regarding happiness, employees participating in well-being initiatives are more content with their work-related factors. Furthermore, well-being initiatives at the workplace bring employees together and improve their working relationships. Once employees co-exist well and peacefully with one another, organisations’ productivity significantly increases. However, on numerous occasions, employee well-being initiatives often fail to achieve their intended objectives because they stand alone. Hence, it is essential to ensure that well-being initiatives are not isolated from everyday business. Additionally, it is also vital to ensure that employee well-being priorities are integrated throughout the whole organisation and embedded in its culture and leadership. In conclusion, investing in well-being initiatives should not be a one-time thing but should be a continuous endeavour in which the organisation invests over time (CIPD Factsheet 2022; Wellneux.com 2018).

AC 3.3 A summary of the main points of discrimination legislation

Falconer (2020) defines the term discrimination as the process of being treated unfairly for a particular reason. On the other hand, the author defines unlawful discrimination as a form of discrimination resulting from unfair treatment concerning specific protected characteristics. The UK’s Equality Act 2010 contains nine critical characteristics. These characteristics are; age, disability, gender, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, marriage, and pregnancy or paternity. According to Falconer (2020), no minimum length of service is required for any particular employee to bring a claim of unlawful discrimination in the UK. However, it is important to note that both employees and employers can be liable for acts of discrimination within their places of work. That is to mean that a claim of discrimination is brought against employees as well as their employers. Falconer (2020) defines a claim as the amount a judge can award due to the possibility of either an employee or an employer in a discrimination case. The four major types of discrimination identified under the equality act are direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, and victimisation. Direct discriminations are deliberate discrimination against protected characteristics individuals possess or are thought to possess. On the other hand, indirect discrimination is less deliberate than direct discrimination. It is important to note that these types of discrimination can occur before even a relationship between employees and their employers starts up to when they are parting ways. Hence, all HR professionals need to ensure there is no discrimination throughout their employees’ lifecycles.

AC 3.4 An explanation of what diversity and inclusion mean and why they are important

CIPD Professional Map (2022) argues that it is important for all people professionals to understand inclusion and diversity and their critical benefits to the organisation and the employees. Velazquez (2022) defines diversity as employing a diverse team that is reflective of the society in which the organisation exists and operates. However, identifying what makes a particular team diverse is complex; thus, professionals need to possess such skills. Velazquez (2022) adds that diversity incorporates many other factors that make individuals different from one another. Although humans have infinite differences, many people recognise diversity by a few factors such as gender, race and age. Now shifting our attention to inclusion, Velazquez (2022) defines inclusion as a workplace achievement in which all employees are treated equally, have an equal chance to excel, and are treated with the utmost respect.

 In the last few years, business leaders across the globe have prioritised diversity and inclusion owing to their immense benefits. One of the key benefits of embracing diversity and inclusion is that diversity sparks innovation. One of the best ways to think outside the box is by embracing revolutionary new strategies and techniques. Moreover, hiring a diverse workforce avail multiple talents, which can aid organisations in driving their forward thinking. Additionally, diverse leadership is also a strategic way to expand a particular organisation’s customer base. As highlighted earlier, a diverse workforce bolsters fresh thinking and new strategies—these help in attracting new customers and helping the organisation grow. Moreover, a diverse workforce boosts team performance. A study conducted by Deloitte noted that inclusive leadership boosted team output by 17% (Bourke 2018).

AC 3.5 An explanation of the difference between fair and unfair dismissal

CIPD Dismissal Procedures Factsheet (2021) defines the dismissal of an employee as an instance where employers terminate an employee’s contract either with or without notifying them. Dismissal can also occur when fixed employee contracts end and are not renewed. Furthermore, dismissal can occur when employees decide to leave with or without notifying their employer. In most instances across the UK, dismissal is mostly associated with misconduct, redundancy and inability to perform some tasks. Dismissal is classified into two distinctive categories fair and unfair dismissal. For a dismissal to be fair in the UK, it must be because of these five reasons: qualifications, conduct, illegality, other substantial reasons, and redundancy (CIPD Dismissal Procedures Factsheet 2021).

In addition to that, there are several statutory rules relating to discussions about a likely fair dismissal. For instance, for a dismissal to be fair, an employer must have acted fairly, a proper investigation must have been conducted, the dismissal must have followed a fair procedure and many others. Now shifting our attention to unfair dismissal is a complex process that calls for an in-depth understanding of numerous law clauses, such as the Employment Rights Act 1996 (CIPD Dismissal Procedures Factsheet 2021). Some key basis of unfair dismissal occurs when employees are dismissed without fair and justifiable reasons, when employers fail to follow a justifiable procedure or when they are not given a chance to oppose their dismissal (Acas 2022).

TASK FOUR - BRIEFING PAPER

AC 4.1 The purpose and components of performance management.

UC Berkeley (2022) defines performance management as the continuous process of communication between employee and their supervisors that occur throughout the year and in support of realising strategic objectives of a given organisation. The key objective of performance management is to ensure that employees and their teams are provided with adequate resources they require to develop, the recognition they deserve to be motivated as well as the ability to understand what is expected of them (PerformYard.com 2020). Another key purpose of performance management is reinforcing values. Regarding that, a vital key idea of to bring the organisation’s values off the wall and into a conversation between workers. To gain a deeper understanding of performance management, it is essential to highlight factors that affect individual and team performance. One of the key factors that affect individual performance is the training and development plan.

 Specifically, a training and development plan can be defined as a plan the management offers to get the most effective outcome at their workplace. Another critical factor that affects an individual or team’s performance at the workplace is workplace policies and procedures. A workplace policy is a statement that dictates how issues related to human resource management are dealt with in a particular organisation. Additionally, workplace policies communicate the company’s values and expectations of employee behaviour and performance. Informal and formal reviews also critically affect individual and team performance within an organisation. Both informal and formal reviews provide essential feedback that is vital for the success of any given organisation.

AC 4.2 The main factors that need to be considered when managing performance

Numerous factors need to be considered when managing performance. The first factor that needs to be considered is the factors that impact job performance. Arguably, multiple factors impact job performance. Some of these key factors are knowledge, experience, awareness, motives and values. Another crucial factor that needs to be considered when managing performance is the clarity of a given goal. According to Nickols (2012), it is fundamental for employees to have in mind a clear picture of any given goal they need to achieve. The author maintains that if that does not exist, the employees can’t understand if they are making progress or when they are accomplished. Nickols (2012) quotes a two-thousand years old quote, “keep the end in view,” to justify the need for a clear goal.

Another critical factor that needs to be considered while managing performance is the level of motivation. Regarding motivation, Nickols (2012) states that “it is one thing to be able to do something; it is something else altogether to want to do it.” Away from that, it is important to highlight that people want to do things for two critical reasons, which are: to serve their purpose or serve another individual purpose in which they are offered something in return. In a workplace setting, self-satisfaction and incentives are fundamental motivators. Another critical factor that needs to be considered when managing performance is work systems. Examples of work systems include information systems, supply chains and employee services (Burke 2017).

AC 4.3 Different methods of performance review

Modern-day employees are more self-aware and seek better ways to help them cultivate and improve their skills. Due to this, many organisations are working round the clock to adopt a more hands-on approach to offer regular feedback to their employees. There are several real and unbiased systems for performance evaluation. Two key performance appraisal methods are the 360-degree feedback method and self-assessment. The 360-degree feedback method focuses on collecting feedback from all individuals an employee interacts with, like line managers, customers, and colleagues. One advantage of the method is that collecting data from multiple sources reduces the chances of a manager’s bias. Additionally, the method offers a clearer picture of an employee’s workplace competence. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that employees increasingly seek unbiased and objective feedback around their performances to stay motivated. A 360-degree provides that opportunity offering unbiased multidimensional assessment involving multiple players. However, the process is time-consuming as it involves many parties. Now shifting our attention to the self-assessment method, the framework provides an opportunity to assess individuals’ contributions to the organisation, areas where they perform better, and ways to improve their work. Most companies are increasingly requesting their employees to conduct a self-evaluation regularly or annually. Some of the key issues highlighted in the self-evaluation assessments include employees’ achievements, communication skills, creativity, productivity, teamwork and time management (Fellow.app 2022). Some of the self-assessment method’s key benefits include enhancing capacity building and bolstering individuals’ confidence to perform different tasks. Some key disadvantages of self-evaluation include that employees may give a low rating to avoid confrontation with managers. By the same token, the employee may reward themselves high rating to pressure the rater.

AC 5.1 Key components (financial and non-financial) that are required to achieve an effective total reward system

CIPD (2022) recognises a reward system as a critical tool for attracting, retaining, and engaging employees. The publication further adds that a wide range of options is available to reward people and recognise their contribution. Still, on the same, an effective reward system meets the needs of its employees and the company’s purpose and culture clearly and responsibly. Specifically, the term “reward” generally covers all the financial and non-financial provisions made by employees. Financial rewards can be defined as monetary incentives that a particular employee receives mostly because of good performance. It is also vital to note that these rewards mostly align with particular organisational goals.

 In that regard, employees who help the organisation achieve its goals are rewarded. Any form of financial reward is defined as extrinsic. Normally, extrinsic rewards entail tangible rewards such as pay raises and paid work breaks. Now shifting our attention to non-financial rewards entails any form of reward that is not part of an employee’s pay. All non-financial rewards are non-intrinsic or non-tangible. Some of the most renowned non-financial rewards include career development opportunities, verbal appreciation, and workplace recognition (Sammer 2011). Unlike in the olden days, when pay was the only benefit that helped attract and retain people, modern-day employees are seeking more than that (CIPD 2022). For example, employees are increasingly seeking organisations that offer training and career development at the start of their careers.

AC 5.3 Explain the reasons for treating employees fairly in relation to pay

There are numerous perspectives on fairness at work. These may be in the form of pay, promotion, training and development. Regarding pay terms, and from an organisation’s perspective, Cotton (2019) identified fairness of pay, pay decision-making, and quality treatment of employees when procedures are implemented. Cotton (2019) argues that this organisational fairness is critical because it shows that all internal stakeholders are respected and valued. On the contrary, if employees think that an employer’s pay policy is unfair, they might not want to join or extend their stay with such an organisation. Additionally, unfair and unclear pay policies may reduce motivation.

 Cotton (2019) maintains that HR teams are important in establishing a fair pay policy. In the UK, unfair pay is illegal. In fact, concerns about unfair treatment, which have existed for a long, resulted in the Equal Pay Act of 1970. In specific, the law prohibits discrimination in terms of pay between men and women. The law is now part of the Equality Act 2010 that applies across the UK. Regarding pay, the Equality Act 2010 gives women and men the right to be paid the same amount when carrying out similar work or work of equal value. To ensure that all organisation comply with the statute, the UK government require all organisations with 250 and above employees to report their gender gap based on the data collected on the 5th of April every year (Cotton 2019).

TASK FIVE - FACT SHEET

AC 6.1 Explain why learning and development activities are of benefit to individuals and organisations.

Also known as L&D, the learning and development process is a continuous process of encouraging employees’ professional development within a given organisation. In specific, learning and development entail analysing skills gaps in a particular business and developing training programmes that empower workers with particular knowledge and skills that bolster performance. Learning and development is a major role of an organisation’s HR department. Another important point to note is that learning and development take place at all levels (Beevers et al., 2019). Recent studies show that firms that engage in employee learning and development experience increased sales (Ottawa University 2021). The section below highlights training and development benefits for individuals and organisations.

One benefit of training and development to an organisation is that it aids in retaining employees. Retention is one of the major challenges for most employers. However, the problem can be solved through career development. In fact, training and development have become a critical competitive advantage when attracting top talents. In that regard, training and development aid organisations in attracting top talent. Additionally, training and development bolster employees’ productivity. On the other hand, training and development are critical in bolstering employees’ morale. In conclusion, employees who receive training report high satisfaction and are more likely to work hard in their positions (Papangelis 2021).

AC 6.2 Describe different types of learning needs and reasons why they arise for individuals and organisations.

According to Stewart and Rogers (2017), there are different types of learning needs and the reasons they arise for both employees and their organisations. According to Hayden (2021), one of the basic steps of preparing an effective learning and development policy is identifying knowledge and skill set gaps. From the above argument, the first learning need can be identified as upgrading skills due to a significant gap in employees’ knowledge and skills. A learning need may also arise from an organisation’s external and internal factors. For instance, a learning need may arise from the adoption of new technology. Here, employers have no choice but to facilitate but to equip their employees with knowledge and skills to understand new technology.

By the same token, a learning need may arise from new legislation or any other type of government intervention. For instance, the “Health and Safety at Work Act 1974” requires all organisations across the UK to provide their employees with adequate information, training, and instruction as a necessary measure to promote the health and safety of their employees (Viciworks 2019). A learning need may also arise when employers want their employees to clearly see the organisation’s goals. For instance, during the onboarding process, employees are taught about the organisation’s goals in an effort to ensure they understand what the organisation wants of them. Regarding the same, Rogers (2017) argued that developing clarity of vision requires investing in education to ensure employees truly understand what they are chasing.

AC 6.3 Summarise different face-to-face and blended learning and development approaches, including; facilitation, training, coaching, and mentoring.

Employees who are well trained appear more-happier and more productive (Indeed.com 2022). Thus, it is essential to take into consideration not only the materials that need to be taught but also the training method. Technological advancements have provided employers with a wide range of training methods than before. However, although a company may decide to adopt new or old technology, it is vital to understand that everyone learns differently. There are three major learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic (learning through actions) (Indeed.com 2022). Employee learning and development can further be categorised as face-to-face and blended learning and development. Face-to-face is provided in person through a one-on-one session or in a group setting. On the other hand, blended learning integrates technology and digital media with conventional instructor-led classroom teaching.

Now shifting our attention to employee training methods, there is a wide range of employee training. The first learning and development method that employers can adopt is technology-based learning. Also known as e-learning, technology-based learning is conducted online with a computer’s aid. Another critical learning and training method are on-the-job training. This refers to instructions for employees that occur in their workplace. In specific, it entails observing others hands-on completing their tasks under the supervision of a trainer or a co-worker. Coaching and mentoring are other vital training learning and method approaches. Employee coaching can be defined as the process of helping employees achieve their goals and objectives without negatively impacting their morale. The four essential types of coaching are executive coaching, team coaching, virtual coaching, and integrated coaching (CCL 2022). On the other hand, mentoring entails establishing a partnership between employees for the purposes of learning and growth. In most instances, a partnership between junior employees and more experienced employees is established to enable them to grow in their positions.

AC 6.4 Explain how individual requirements and preferences must be accommodated in the design and delivery of learning and development initiatives.

Learners’ requirements and preferences are prerequisites for effective learning and development (Hayden 2021). Consequently, learning and development experts have attempted to develop programs that effectively cater to each learner’s needs. When selecting effective learning and development initiatives, successful course developers take into account learner preferences. Past and current research works have shown that learner preferences play a significant role in the success of any learning and development initiatives. One of the key reasons why learning and development initiatives should consider individual preferences is that different employees require and prefer-different types of training. This is because learning and development initiatives are affected by factors such as job complexity, job function or the deportment in which the employees work.

 On the other hand, all employees in an organisation have different learning and development learning times. Thus, an organisation’s role is to ensure that learning and development are offered at each of the employees’ convenience. Additionally, those developing learning and development programmes should take into consideration employees’ history of learning. For instance, it could be inappropriate to have an employee who has learned a particular course repeat the same. This is not only a waste of time but also a waste of an organisation’s resources. Moreover, training and development designers need to ensure that their programmes are ethical. For instance, it could be ethically wrong to offer training and development on Sundays in an organisation where the majority of employees are Christians.

AC 6.5 Discuss at least two methods of evaluating learning and development and its impact.

For a long time, learning and development evaluation has been a vital tool between organisational managers and their employees. Learning and development evaluation covers how it is transferred, engagement of employees taking it, and engagement of wider stakeholders such as line managers and customers (Hayden 2021). Learning and development evaluations are vital checkpoints that ensure that training offered is able to fill the competency gap in a given organisation. Another benefit of learning and development evaluation is that it improves accountability by ensuring training programmes comply with desired deliverables. Additionally, learning and development evaluation ensures training programs bolster cost-efficiency systems that, in turn, improve work quality. Now shifting our attention to evaluation data collection methods, there are numerous ways that researchers can use to collect learning and development data necessary for evaluation.

 The first and one of the most effective data collection methods used is “survey”. Specifically, surveys are physical and digital questionnaires that collect qualitative and quantitative data from different sources, such as customers and line managers. Another effective data collection strategy regarding learning and training evaluation is “interviewing learners.” Through interviews, managers can gather vital employee feedback about their new learning and development initiatives. By the same token, managers can interview line managers in relation to employee learning and development (Cote 2021). Furthermore, online tracking has also emerged as one of the most critical strategies to collect learning and development success. For instance, managers can track customers’ behaviours and comments to learn about the effectiveness of particular learning and development initiatives.

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Sandhya, K. and Kumar, D.P., 2011. Employee retention by motivation. Indian Journal of science and technology4(12), pp.1778-1782.

Sanfilippo, M. 2022. How to Improve Your Work-Life Balance – businessnewsdaily.com. Available at: https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/5244-improve-work-life-balance-today.html (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

Shrm.org, 2021c. Complying with Employment Record Requirements. Available at: https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/complyingwithemploymentrecordrequirements.aspx (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

Shrm.org, 2022a. Conducting Background Investigations and Reference Checks. Available at: https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/conductingbackgroundinvestigations.aspx (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

Shrm.org, 2022b. Recruiting Internally and Externally (2022). Available at: https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/recruitinginternallyandexternally. (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

Smartrecruiters.com, 2015. Candidate Aptitude Test. Available at: https://www.smartrecruiters.com/resources/glossary/candidate-aptitude-test/ (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

SpriggHR, 2020. The 6 Stages of the Employee Life Cycle. Available at: https://sprigghr.com/blog/360-degree-continuous-feedback/the-6-stages-of-the-employee-life-cycle/ (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

Stewart, J. and Rogers, P. (eds). (2017) Studying learning and development. London: CIPD Kogan Page.

SWhrconsulting, 2019. The Importance of Record Keeping. Available at: https://medium.com/@swhrconsulting/the-importance-of-record-keeping (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

UC Berkeley, 2022. Performance Management: Concepts & Definitions | People & Culture. Available at: https://hr.berkeley.edu/hr-network/central-guide-managing-hr/managing-hr/managing-successfully/performance-management/concepts. (Accessed: 7 September 2022).

Velazquez, 2022. What Is Diversity & Inclusion in the Workplace? | Built In. Available at: https://builtin.com/diversity-inclusion (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

Viciworks, 2019. What Are the Main Health and Safety Laws in the UK?. Available at: https://vinciworks.com/blog/what-are-the-main-health-and-safety-laws-in-the-uk/ (Accessed: 7 September 2022).

Wellneux.com, 2018. 5 Benefits of Health and Wellness Programs at Work — Corporate Health, Workplace Wellness & Wellbeing. Available at: https://www.wellineux.com/blog/2018/5/5-benefits-of-health-and-wellness-programs-at-work (Accessed: 6 September 2022).

AC 1.3 Different recruitment methods and when it is appropriate to use them.

There exist numerous types of recruitment methods that different organisations can utilise to attract the most suitable candidates. It is essential to understand that not every job has similar requirements. Due to that, employers must adopt different hiring tactics that match their environment as well as appeal to the candidates they are searching for (Brighthr.com 2020). The recruitment process can be categorised as either external or internal. External recruitment entails going outside the organisation to attract individuals you have never met. On the other hand, internal recruitment entails filling vacancies within a particular organisation from the existing workforce. The first recruitment methods are internal and external advertisements.

 Internal advertisement is vital when employers want to fill vacant positions quickly and cheaply as well as train new talents within the organisation. On the other hand, external recruitment is vital while attracting individuals with essential skill sets that are not found within the organisation (Shrm.org 2022b). Another critical recruitment method is the use of agencies. This method can be vital for organisations that require faster hiring and highly skilled candidates. Another critical recruitment method is electronic recruitment. Also known as online recruitment, the method utilises web-based technology for the various processes of attracting, recruiting, and potential onboarding candidates. The method is critical for organisations that want to save time, shorten the hiring process, and consider the broad scope of candidates (HR-ON 2019).

TASK THREE - GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

AC 3.1 An explanation of the importance of achieving work-life balance with the employment relationship with an overview of the regulations relevant to work-life balance

According to Sanfilippo (2022), creating a harmonious work-life balance is critical to improving not only employees’ physical, emotional and mental well-being as well as their careers. Sanfilippo (2022) defines work-life balance as the state of equilibrium when an individual equally prioritises work and personal demands. According to CIPD (2019), poor work-life balance is one of the undermining attempts to improve job quality in the UK. Three in five (60%) employees interviewed in the CIPD (2019) survey stated that longer working hours disrupted their family life balance. There are numerous benefits associated with long working hours. The first benefit of work-life balance is that it reduces employee turnover. When employees are satisfied, they are less likely to leave their organisation. Additionally, offering flexible working options to workers makes their lives easier and results in increased productivity.

For instance, some employees are more active during the day while others are more active during the night. Thus, allowing them to work at their most suitable time will increase productivity. Furthermore, work-life balance increases staff morale. Regarding that, when employees experience a better work-life balance, they are more likely to put more effort into their job positions (IRIS 2018). Apart from work-balance initiatives offered by different regulations, there are also vital regulations relating to the same. Some key work-life balance regulations include holidays, mandatory rest periods, and maternal and paternal leaves, among many others. For instance, under the UK’s Statutory Maternity Leave, eligible employees can take up to 52 weeks of maternity leave (Gov.uk 2022). Additionally, almost all employees across the UK are legally entitled to 5.6 weeks of paid leave in a year (Gov.uk 2022).

AC 3.2 The concept of well-being in the workplace and why it is essential

Employee well-being can be termed as the overall mental, physical, and economic health of employees within a particular organisation. Bolstering employee well-being at the workplace is vital for people within a particular organisation (CIPD Factsheet 2022). In fact, championing better work and working lives is the heart of the CIPD Profession Map (2022). The CIPD Factsheet (2022) further shows that facilitating a healthy working environment helps employees to flourish and reach their maximum potential. Specifically, a healthy working environment entails creating a clear environment that actively bolsters the state of contentment, which benefits both employees and their organisations. Recently, mental health has grown to become among the key focus of health and well-being activities (CIPD Health and Wellbeing Report 2022). According to the CIPD Factsheet (2022), investing in employees’ well-being can result in increased resilience, increased productivity, improved employee engagement, as well as reduced sickness-related absenteeism. Additionally, employee well-being initiatives are also instrumental in creating a happier workforce (Wellneux.com 2018).

 Regarding happiness, employees participating in well-being initiatives are more content with their work-related factors. Furthermore, well-being initiatives at the workplace bring employees together and improve their working relationships. Once employees co-exist well and peacefully with one another, organisations’ productivity significantly increases. However, on numerous occasions, employee well-being initiatives often fail to achieve their intended objectives because they stand alone. Hence, it is essential to ensure that well-being initiatives are not isolated from everyday business. Additionally, it is also vital to ensure that employee well-being priorities are integrated throughout the whole organisation and embedded in its culture and leadership. In conclusion, investing in well-being initiatives should not be a one-time thing but should be a continuous endeavour in which the organisation invests over time (CIPD Factsheet 2022; Wellneux.com 2018).

AC 3.3 A summary of the main points of discrimination legislation

Falconer (2020) defines the term discrimination as the process of being treated unfairly for a particular reason. On the other hand, the author defines unlawful discrimination as a form of discrimination resulting from unfair treatment concerning specific protected characteristics. The UK’s Equality Act 2010 contains nine critical characteristics. These characteristics are; age, disability, gender, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, marriage, and pregnancy or paternity. According to Falconer (2020), no minimum length of service is required for any particular employee to bring a claim of unlawful discrimination in the UK. However, it is important to note that both employees and employers can be liable for acts of discrimination within their places of work. That is to mean that a claim of discrimination is brought against employees as well as their employers. Falconer (2020) defines a claim as the amount a judge can award due to the possibility of either an employee or an employer in a discrimination case. The four major types of discrimination identified under the equality act are direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, and victimisation. Direct discriminations are deliberate discrimination against protected characteristics individuals possess or are thought to possess. On the other hand, indirect discrimination is less deliberate than direct discrimination. It is important to note that these types of discrimination can occur before even a relationship between employees and their employers starts up to when they are parting ways. Hence, all HR professionals need to ensure there is no discrimination throughout their employees’ lifecycles.

AC 3.4 An explanation of what diversity and inclusion mean and why they are important

CIPD Professional Map (2022) argues that it is important for all people professionals to understand inclusion and diversity and their critical benefits to the organisation and the employees. Velazquez (2022) defines diversity as employing a diverse team that is reflective of the society in which the organisation exists and operates. However, identifying what makes a particular team diverse is complex; thus, professionals need to possess such skills. Velazquez (2022) adds that diversity incorporates many other factors that make individuals different from one another. Although humans have infinite differences, many people recognise diversity by a few factors such as gender, race and age. Now shifting our attention to inclusion, Velazquez (2022) defines inclusion as a workplace achievement in which all employees are treated equally, have an equal chance to excel, and are treated with the utmost respect.

 In the last few years, business leaders across the globe have prioritised diversity and inclusion owing to their immense benefits. One of the key benefits of embracing diversity and inclusion is that diversity sparks innovation. One of the best ways to think outside the box is by embracing revolutionary new strategies and techniques. Moreover, hiring a diverse workforce avail multiple talents, which can aid organisations in driving their forward thinking. Additionally, diverse leadership is also a strategic way to expand a particular organisation’s customer base. As highlighted earlier, a diverse workforce bolsters fresh thinking and new strategies—these help in attracting new customers and helping the organisation grow. Moreover, a diverse workforce boosts team performance. A study conducted by Deloitte noted that inclusive leadership boosted team output by 17% (Bourke 2018).

AC 3.5 An explanation of the difference between fair and unfair dismissal

CIPD Dismissal Procedures Factsheet (2021) defines the dismissal of an employee as an instance where employers terminate an employee’s contract either with or without notifying them. Dismissal can also occur when fixed employee contracts end and are not renewed. Furthermore, dismissal can occur when employees decide to leave with or without notifying their employer. In most instances across the UK, dismissal is mostly associated with misconduct, redundancy and inability to perform some tasks. Dismissal is classified into two distinctive categories fair and unfair dismissal. For a dismissal to be fair in the UK, it must be because of these five reasons: qualifications, conduct, illegality, other substantial reasons, and redundancy (CIPD Dismissal Procedures Factsheet 2021).

In addition to that, there are several statutory rules relating to discussions about a likely fair dismissal. For instance, for a dismissal to be fair, an employer must have acted fairly, a proper investigation must have been conducted, the dismissal must have followed a fair procedure and many others. Now shifting our attention to unfair dismissal is a complex process that calls for an in-depth understanding of numerous law clauses, such as the Employment Rights Act 1996 (CIPD Dismissal Procedures Factsheet 2021). Some key basis of unfair dismissal occurs when employees are dismissed without fair and justifiable reasons, when employers fail to follow a justifiable procedure or when they are not given a chance to oppose their dismissal (Acas 2022).

AC 3.3 A summary of the main points of discrimination legislation

Falconer (2020) defines the term discrimination as the process of being treated unfairly for a particular reason. On the other hand, the author defines unlawful discrimination as a form of discrimination resulting from unfair treatment concerning specific protected characteristics. The UK’s Equality Act 2010 contains nine critical characteristics. These characteristics are; age, disability, gender, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, marriage, and pregnancy or paternity. According to Falconer (2020), no minimum length of service is required for any particular employee to bring a claim of unlawful discrimination in the UK. However, it is important to note that both employees and employers can be liable for acts of discrimination within their places of work. That is to mean that a claim of discrimination is brought against employees as well as their employers. Falconer (2020) defines a claim as the amount a judge can award due to the possibility of either an employee or an employer in a discrimination case. The four major types of discrimination identified under the equality act are direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, and victimisation. Direct discriminations are deliberate discrimination against protected characteristics individuals possess or are thought to possess. On the other hand, indirect discrimination is less deliberate than direct discrimination. It is important to note that these types of discrimination can occur before even a relationship between employees and their employers starts up to when they are parting ways. Hence, all HR professionals need to ensure there is no discrimination throughout their employees’ lifecycles.

AC 4.3 Different methods of performance review

Modern-day employees are more self-aware and seek better ways to help them cultivate and improve their skills. Due to this, many organisations are working round the clock to adopt a more hands-on approach to offer regular feedback to their employees. There are several real and unbiased systems for performance evaluation. Two key performance appraisal methods are the 360-degree feedback method and self-assessment. The 360-degree feedback method focuses on collecting feedback from all individuals an employee interacts with, like line managers, customers, and colleagues. One advantage of the method is that collecting data from multiple sources reduces the chances of a manager’s bias. Additionally, the method offers a clearer picture of an employee’s workplace competence. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that employees increasingly seek unbiased and objective feedback around their performances to stay motivated. A 360-degree provides that opportunity offering unbiased multidimensional assessment involving multiple players. However, the process is time-consuming as it involves many parties. Now shifting our attention to the self-assessment method, the framework provides an opportunity to assess individuals’ contributions to the organisation, areas where they perform better, and ways to improve their work. Most companies are increasingly requesting their employees to conduct a self-evaluation regularly or annually. Some of the key issues highlighted in the self-evaluation assessments include employees’ achievements, communication skills, creativity, productivity, teamwork and time management (Fellow.app 2022). Some of the self-assessment method’s key benefits include enhancing capacity building and bolstering individuals’ confidence to perform different tasks. Some key disadvantages of self-evaluation include that employees may give a low rating to avoid confrontation with managers. By the same token, the employee may reward themselves high rating to pressure the rater.

AC 6.3 Summarise different face-to-face and blended learning and development approaches, including; facilitation, training, coaching, and mentoring.

Employees who are well trained appear more-happier and more productive (Indeed.com 2022). Thus, it is essential to take into consideration not only the materials that need to be taught but also the training method. Technological advancements have provided employers with a wide range of training methods than before. However, although a company may decide to adopt new or old technology, it is vital to understand that everyone learns differently. There are three major learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic (learning through actions) (Indeed.com 2022). Employee learning and development can further be categorised as face-to-face and blended learning and development. Face-to-face is provided in person through a one-on-one session or in a group setting. On the other hand, blended learning integrates technology and digital media with conventional instructor-led classroom teaching.

Now shifting our attention to employee training methods, there is a wide range of employee training. The first learning and development method that employers can adopt is technology-based learning. Also known as e-learning, technology-based learning is conducted online with a computer’s aid. Another critical learning and training method are on-the-job training. This refers to instructions for employees that occur in their workplace. In specific, it entails observing others hands-on completing their tasks under the supervision of a trainer or a co-worker. Coaching and mentoring are other vital training learning and method approaches. Employee coaching can be defined as the process of helping employees achieve their goals and objectives without negatively impacting their morale. The four essential types of coaching are executive coaching, team coaching, virtual coaching, and integrated coaching (CCL 2022). On the other hand, mentoring entails establishing a partnership between employees for the purposes of learning and growth. In most instances, a partnership between junior employees and more experienced employees is established to enable them to grow in their positions.

AC 2.3 An explanation of how the appraisal can be used to identify who is interested in progression, managing contingency, and mitigating risks through OcMara developing their talent pools

An appraisal can be defined as the formal process of evaluating a particular employee’s performance by comparing actual performance against a particular organisation’s set of goals. In most instances, it is conducted through a questionnaire or using a one-to-one discussion between employees and their managers (IB Business Management HL, n.d.). An appraisal can aid the manager and employee identify training and development needs. Additionally, appraisals allow organisations to recognise and reward their employees. Appraisals can also be vital for contingency planning. In particular, an organisation can use appraisals to assess and prevent or modify the impact associated with certain unacceptable risks. OcMara can adopt employee appraisal to establish key areas where employees need to advance their knowledge. Additionally, performance appraisals can provide OcMara management with an opportunity to receive employee feedback, which can also be vital for the organisation’s success.

AC 1.4: The Scale of Technology within Organisations and its Impact on Work

Organisations have immensely benefited from the technological revolution even as some corporate actors point out to dangers present when technology appears to take off in a more accelerated speed much more than organisations can bear. The Chartered Institute for Personnel and Development (CIPD) has consistently tracked the interaction of employees with technology placing the impact on organisations under focus (CIPD, 2020). One of the key takeaways is that technology has risen to the position of a partner to employees around the world. A workstation that required handwritten memo can now circulate memos through such tools as email, team-based digital platforms i.e Slack, TEAMS and WhatsApp groups. Web conferencing capacities now enable remote-based working processes. Facilities have access to technology that can accelerate the creation of more efficient applications and programs clearing the way for accelerated performance and a high value for money. CIPD’s 2020 report on employee experience around technology presents that a bulk of current people roles will be automated in a decade or so (CIPD, 2020). The automation implies a huge reduction on errors and a rise in reliability and delivery.

Employees have reported substantive changes in work execution after absorbing technology in their duties. CIPD reports that 32% of employees have reported changes in the use of technologies over the last one year (CIPD, 2020). About 505 of the employees surveyed by CIPD indicated the need to update their skills and match the outputs advanced by technology (CIPD, 2020). Organisations should interpret such findings to imply increased responsibility around facilitating more engaging workplaces for employees. For example, facilities should expose communication workers to consistent tool use training capable of empowering the employees into useful use of technologies. A member of staff in the communication department will not appreciate the value of web conference tools if they cannot understand mechanisms of using them.

Organisational stakeholders across various industries do promote the observation that too much workplace automation could lead to massive job losses for ‘conventional’ employees. The bulk of stakeholders promoting this position are unions, governments and employees. However, it is notable that automation amplifies efficiency and paves way of the rise of bigger and more vibrant institutions. Strengthening the institutions leads to widened opportunities. It is in the interest of organizations through their collective lobbies and associations to impress on employees that competitive industries imply increased openings. Further, technology keeps on expanding the entrepreneurial space. Start-ups offering technology support services are rising by the minute and the present extremely new workplace positions. More attention on technology-facilitated collaboration enhances organisational intersection and facilitates the insight necessary to illustrate new directions. Organisations appropriating resources towards showing employees how technology can qualify as a workplace partner are playing a right part in taking employees to the next level.

References

Thite, M. (2022). Digital human resource development: where are we? Where should we go and how do we go there?. Human Resource Development International25(1), 87-103.

Dirani, K. M., Abadi, M., Alizadeh, A., Barhate, B., Garza, R. C., Gunasekara, N., … & Majzun, Z. (2020). Leadership competencies and the essential role of human resource development in times of crisis: a response to Covid-19 pandemic. Human Resource Development International23(4), 380-394.

AC1.4 A short review of different technologies available to People Professionals and how these can be used to improve working practices and collaboration.

SLIDE 10

There are numerous technologies that can significantly aid the firm’s workers in their practice. Adapting and incorporating these innovations into the firm’s regular operations results in increased performance and output. Communication technologies, including the use of email messages for information exchange, record-keeping systems, such as the use of cloud-based systems to keep information, and learning latest technology, which enables employees to understand as much as possible in order to specialize in their professions, are examples of these technologies. (Nazarova, Nazarov and Bilokonenko, 2020).

Drawing on work or personal examples, analyse how you would/have taken responsibility for your work/actions, including recognising and rectifying mistakes (1.4)

Human resources errors can have far-reaching consequences for the company. Litigation expenses can be quite high for businesses that don’t follow the law regarding employee rights and benefits or data confidentiality (Roth, 2018). Recruiting and training a new employee comes with significant expenditures, and if a mistake is made and the incorrect person selected for the job, the organisation is exposed to more risk. I have made my own share of mistakes which has had serious repercussions. For instance, an employee once approached me with a workplace grievance that one of the managers was employing favouritism especially when assigning duties and responsibilities. Since workload was too big at the moment I decided to handle the matter later when most of it would be done. I however ended up forgetting to handle the matter altogether. Little did I know many employees were affected by the matter and it came to light once again we had lost almost four of our most promising employees. The issue now too dire and I had to take responsibility of failing to acknowledge and act on a grievance soon enough. Nonetheless, I agreed to take responsibility and fix the situation. I conducted in depth evaluation of the matter before employing the company policy and procedures on how to deal with the line manager. I was also able to reach out and talk to the employees who left to come back promising a correction of the matter and I was able to bring back two who were yet to receive new offers. I conducted immediate interviews and training to replace the remaining two. After the incidence I ensured to remain keen on employee grievances.

AC 1.4 At least two distinct ethical theories and views should be considered in decision making.

Utilitarianism is an ethical philosophy that focuses on the outcome in order to define what is right and wrong (Driver, 2009). It is one of the most frequently used persuasive tactics in the subject of normative ethics, and it is also one of the most effective. A choice that is most ethical is defined as one that results in the greatest amount of good, according to this viewpoint. It is possible to use this concept to inform and influence excellent decision making when the decision is in the best interests of the majority of employees or the organisation as a whole. As an example, the Covid 19 pandemic has impacted countless organisations, prompting the deployment of low-wage labour to compensate for the damage. In this situation, human resource professionals must choose between laying off employees and hiring new staff at a cheaper cost. Despite the fact that this is unethical, it will improve the long-term viability of organisations, particularly those that have been impacted by the pandemic. Justice, as well as any sense of individual rights, are excluded from this worldview.

Kantianism, often known as Kant’s moral theory, on the other hand, maintains that specific actions are prohibited regardless of the outcome. It is a deontological moral theory in which the focus is placed on an individual’s moral obligation rather than the outcome of a particular action or inaction (Chonko, 2012). Individuals’ ability to act morally in accordance with universal categorical imperatives is founded on the principle of moral responsibility. As a result of this concept, decisions should be made in light of an individual or a society’s moral and ethical duties. Because of this, the decision will be ethical (Chonko, 2012).

Influence of Theories in decision making.

A lot of what people think about when they make decisions has an impact on how they make decisions. In order to make good ethical decisions, you need to pay attention to what you do. HR should be in charge of most of an organization’s ethical responsibilities, even though the theories are broken up into three frameworks. Concomitantist: This is a type of ethical framework that is based on ethical theories. Duty: This is a type of ethical framework based on ethical theories. Virtue: Using the three frameworks to think about a situation before making a decision helps the person who makes the decision have a clearer picture of the matter at hand and come up with a sound decision that takes into account the ethical implications and the people who are involved (Bonde and Firenze, 2011). In the figure below, you can see a summary of different ethical theories, as well as their benefits and drawbacks.

Ethical Theories, Illustration 3 (Source: www.pagecentertraining.psu.edu, 2020)

AC 1.4 Critically evaluate the interrelationships between employee voice and organisational performance.

Organisational performance and employee voice are closely linked. Many studies state that employee voice is a substantial contributor to low productivity in many organisations. Employees may opt to keep silent if management does not listen to their concerns and suggestions. This can be detrimental to the organisation. If employees are afraid of losing their jobs once they voice their concerns, they are more likely to keep information that could be valuable to the company. To get the most out of your employees, managers need to pay attention to their voices and how they feel about their work environment. Furthermore, it has been shown that giving employees a voice reduces employee burnout while increasing their dedication. Making solutions are seeing tremendous expansion, which may be placing a significant amount of stress on the staff and resulting in burnout. As a result, if they are not adequately advised or supported, their loyalty to the organisation could be severely damaged. Because employee voice enables employees to influence their employers’ decisions, it fosters employee participation (Jha et al., 2019). It’s a great way to boost productivity and morale, which benefits the company’s workforce and upper management. It enhances the overall quality and experience of the workplace by serving as an effective incentive for employees. As a result of their increased sense of being heard, valued, and treated fairly, employees are more likely to stay with the company (Jha et al., 2019). Employees who don’t have a voice in the workplace are more likely to leave, be absent, and have a lower level of productivity and performance.

Question 15

You have been asked to make recommendations to your senior management team about how your organisation might improve its record in the area of sustainability. You are asked to identify TWO distinct interventions that will not be too expensive to implement. What would you recommend and why?

There are numerous ways to characterize organisational development, all of which share basic characteristics despite their various interpretations. Organisation development, regardless of approach, has developed to become one of the most crucial practices an organization requires to retain performance in a fast-changing environment.

Organisation development is a process in which interventions are developed with a ‘systematic mind-set.’ That is, they align with the goals and activities of the organization in an organized and deliberate manner, with the goal of achieving a particular outcome that will enhance the company’s overall performance. Organization development is defined as ‘a planned and methodical strategy to allowing sustained organisational effectiveness via the engagement of its employees from the standpoint of the people profession (Geldenhuys, 2022).

When working with line managers and human resource professionals, organisation development specialists can significantly assist the firm in achieving its objectives. The professionals have extensive experience in traversing complexity in order to decipher what the organisation is seeking to accomplish; diagnose underlying issues, challenges, and opportunities; and select the most appropriate techniques for the organisation’s development moving forward.

Employees are frequently at the centre of the resulting organisational changes, and people professionals must have a firm grasp of the relationship between organisational growth and strategy and the human resource agenda. They should use their competence and knowledge of the organisation to question assumptions, assist in the uncovering of non-obvious challenges, identify and assess barriers/enablers to implementation, and effectively manage change.

Organisational development can take several shapes and focus on different areas of an organisation, which is why OD has emerged from a variety of disciplines, each with a somewhat different perspective on what it is and how it should be carried out. Some essential concepts, however, are always present:

  • When an organisation’s primary competitive advantage is derived from its employees (rather than from technology or machinery), organizational development will entail the use of behavioural science knowledge and experience in areas such as management, group dynamics, and job design. This guarantees that people’s practices are established in a manner that is informed by research and scientific knowledge of why and how people behave in certain ways.
  • Organizations’ development efforts are focused on increasing the value derived from their resources. For instance, in a computer-based production facility, the development efforts might be concentrated on mechanical efficiencies, while in an organization that provides people services, the development efforts might be concentrated on individuals’ abilities.
  • Organizational development is centred on an organization’s strategy, objectives, and fundamental purpose — all development activities are directed at achieving these objectives to a greater extent. Without this emphasis, development might become incongruent with the organisation’s overall mission and generate additional problems.
  • Change management and organizational development are intertwined in the sense that several developments would be executed using change management practices moreover they are also interrelated in the sense that they are carried out consistently; organizational development is a type of organized, currently underway, systematic change that seeks to institutionalize continuous improvement within organisations.

The Organisational development process has 4 major stages with various sub-stages:

  1. Organisation review; this is an identification stage where the firm conducts a need analysis to identify what it needs to grow.  This process utilizes a range of tools and approaches, including:
  2. Strategic review
  3. Quantitative performance targets
  4. Target Operating Model
  5. Future state analysis
  6. PESTLE
  7. SWOT

Determine the degree to which such needs are addressed. Basically, the same as conducting a gap analysis to determine the gap between a present position and a desirable future position while utilizing a variety of concepts or diagnostic equipment to analyse the scenario thoroughly.

  • Organizational design frameworks which can be used as diagnostics include; the Burke Litwin framework and McKinsey’s 7S model.
  • Force Field Analysis.
  • Six Sigma
  • Total Quality Management (TQM).

Determining the kind of intervention that should be used to fill the void and whether to design or purchase it: Due to its multidisciplinary roots, organisational development has a variety of approaches; the following are an example of the intervention that could be used;

  • Strategic interventions-which includes; business planning, cultural change, transformation programmes.
  • Human process interventions involve coaching, training, group work, facilitation, and action learning.
  • Human resource interventions aim to reward, motivate, performance management, and employee surveys.
  • Techno-structural interventions include; Lean / Six Sigma, business process reengineering, and outsourcing.

All of these are similar in that they strive to improve a firm’s procedures and practices, but each category handles the activity differently based on what the practitioner believes is required. In essence, they are attempting to increase organizational effectiveness, but they will vary based on the desired strategy. A competent organizational development practitioner will ascertain the nature of the problem (diagnostic) and determine which strategy/approach is most likely to resolve it.

Implement the initiative; it is always prudent to implement comprehensive change management strategies, including a strong emphasis on communication, stakeholder engagement, and evaluation measures. This Landing transformational change report discusses current change management theory as well as specific action recommendations for change interventions in organisations. The change management theory discussed is practical and has been deployed by a number of organizations that have put the concepts into action.

AC 3.4 Advise on the importance of handling grievances effectively

The primary goals of developing an effective complaint process at the workplace include allowing employees to vent their grievances to management, clarifying the nature of the grievance, and investigating potential causes of dissatisfaction. This process also strives to find quick solutions to issues it raises and takes appropriate action. Employees are informed of their rights to escalate grievances, especially when a problem emerges within the workplace environment.

Once an employee files a complaint, the management ought to respond immediately and efficiently. Indeed managing complaints may be both challenging and time-consuming. Hence, any delay in addressing and resolving a complaint will exacerbate the situation, as it may result in unfavourable publicity that can occur due to poor employee grievance management within organisations. The negative publicity causes a loss in the client base, thereby affecting revenue. Additionally, it might result in financial issues and a considerable decline in market value due to eroding client loyalty.

According to Mukiira (2020), managing workplace grievances aids in the establishment of various workplace norms and codes that promote employment relations. The ideal way of addressing grievances is through addressing them as soon as they arise and handling them promptly with the help of an immediate supervisor. Managing employee grievances stands to benefit both employees and the organisation. Employees are encouraged to express their concerns without fear of retaliation when grievances are handled effectively. It also prevents minor workplace disagreements from escalating into more heated arguments and provides a quick and equitable mechanism for dealing with such grievances. It saves the organisations money and time by identifying and implementing solutions to issues that emerge at the workplace. Grievance handling processes contribute to the development of a coherent organisational atmosphere built on honesty and openness, hence enhancing the employee-employer relationship.

2.4 Distinguish between third-party conciliation, mediation, and arbitration.

Third Third-party dispute resolution entails appointing a neutral person to assist the two disputing parties in reaching an agreement. Third-party conflict resolution is more prevalent at organisational levels when conflicting employees can engage a co-worker to reach an agreement. Third-party conflict resolution agreements are not legally binding, making them difficult to employ in collective bargaining. The conciliator’s role is to assist the two disputing parties toward agreement on various issues without enforcing any choices. This strategy is more appropriate when the two parties share a high level of trust.

Mediation is a cost-effective method of resolving dispute in which two disputing parties hire a mediator to help them through the procedure (Findlaw, 2021). The mediator is actively engaged in identifying areas of disagreement and assisting the parties in resolving them in a step-by-step fashion. Mediation is not legally enforceable and is conducted in good faith by the parties in order to obtain a desired agreement. The procedure can be utilized in both individual dispute resolution and collective bargaining of trade unions.

Arbitration is a form of conflict resolution that is mostly utilized when the two parties in disagreement are unable to come to an agreement and require the assistance of third parties to interpret choices and render judgments. In arbitration, the two parties relinquish their decision-making authority and rely on the arbitrators to render a ruling that obligates them to comply. Arbitration is more frequently employed in collective bargaining and, on occasion, when parties are unable to reach an agreement.

5CO01 Assignment Examples

5CO01: Organisational Performance and Culture in Practice

AC 1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Two Types of Organisation Structures

Functional Organisational Structure

The functional organisational structure focuses on appropriating people roles and duties in struct accordance to their skills, abilities and specialities. The employees are then grouped into units all aligned to defined functions. Managerial officers heading the divisional segments units then report to the top-most management. The wider purpose behind functional structures is to allow a high sense of organisational focus on critically crucial business units. A facility with an independent research and development (R&D) unit will have staffers in the department only focusing on R&D without appropriating efforts elsewhere. This factor can allow the organisation to effectively assess its research trajectory and value that investments on R&D bring to the facility. Top management have preference for the reporting of units independently with an aim of evaluating strong points and assessing weak areas. It is also a system of retaining specialists within a single output line as a mechanism of amplifying efficiency.

Advantages

The functional organizational structure carries its set of merits as evidenced by various success stories from the corporate world and increased scholarly attention on its relevance in today’s organisational landscape. The grouping of specialist staffers within a single line of functions highly enhances workplace efficiency. A communication intern reporting to a communication officer who is supervised by a departmental communication manager paves way for the realization of people fully indulged in their speciality. The absence of role duplication erases professional confusion and promotes a clear reporting line (Bromley, 2018). Functional structures have demonstrated their capacity to save unnecessary expenses and reduce organisational vote heads. Decrease in duplicated departments and interlinked reporting formats minimizes offices, a factor which works in creating manageable organisational expenses. People domiciled within functional areas that optimally utilize their professional strengths exhibit high-motivation levels directly leading to high productivity.

Disadvantages

The retention of people in static functional units can metamorphosize into professional detention paving way for the display of boredom. The repetition of tasks can diminish motivation and produce low-energy employees. An erratic handling of promotions in scenarios that have juniors rising above long-staying employees demoralizes workers and may encourage withdrawals and staff exits (Bromley, 2018). Employee turnovers form expensive realities for organisations on the basis of exit packages and new recruitment initiatives. Functional units can also detach employees from overall organisational strategies, goals and values creating employee dissonance. This factor can have employees whose work and motivation does not align with the wider objectives, an issue that can cost organisations. Territorial conflicts can arise especially in the case of non-performance by a single unit.

Matrix Organisational Structure

The matrix organisational structure accesses its image through collaboration among units, integration of employees within units and the presence of shared resource planning. Employees within a matrix organisational structure remain held within several chains of command and a single employee can report to more than one senior. The overall purpose behind this structure is to facilitate injection of employee dynamism and foster team-work.

Advantages

A matrix organisational structure advances substantive merits to institutions. The team-based project approach has facilitated integration of skills in a strategy that promotes workplace efficiency. A single project can absorb effective public communicators, reliable marketing professionals and charismatic leaders. The collaboration advantage has strongly enhanced resource planning, saving companies expenses and activating a possibly high return on investment (ROI) ratio (Turi and Sorooshian, 2019). Beyond creating dynamism through interdepartmental communication, the framework lays the foundation for problem detection across units. Senior executives can access the opportunity to diagnose challenges that occur within individual departments. Employees manage to internalize new range of skills and valuable experience from cross-unit interactions.

Disadvantages

Lack of managerial clarity rises as a fundamental disadvantage in matrix organisation structures. A unit manager may fail to differentiate their roles from those of project leaders paving way for the rise of confusions, and thus delays. Unclear roles is an issue extending to employees and the overall delay can hinder effective project implantation and amplify costs associated with single organisational tasks (Turi and Sorooshian, 2019). The function integration has, in some instances, led to a clogged decision-making process, a result that further complicates work systems. It is also possible to have matrix environments failing to accurately measure employee output.

AC 1.2 Connections Between Organisational Strategy, Products, Services and Customers

Organisational strategy functions as the operational engine of an entity and directs the form of actions on products, services and customers. Clarified values, a well-defined mission and an ambitious vision carry the potential of determining organisational trajectory on the three critically important elements. An organisation keen on delivering a future-proof product can immensely invest in a strong product design framework. Organisations have used the elements of concept designs, rolling out of prototypes and testing markets prior to releasing products. This tactic creates a collective mindset of preparation and facilitates a strong understanding of the market. Apple Inc has consistently employed the strategy of testing its iPhone device brand prior to actual market releases (Yan, 2016). It is this organizational strategy that has realized consistent success for the company. An organisation that understands how its products serves the customers and the market dynamics behind the product releases stands near sustainable success.

Various operating components can guide how an organisation can align its overall strategy to meet customer needs. At the apex of this framework is the need to deliver quality services and products. Mercedes, as a corporation, has consistently sold itself as an automaker keen on quality vehicles. An organisation may also carry the preference of activating a favourable pricing model to capture defined consumer demographics. Chinese phone companies deliver affordably priced devices to Asian and African markets managing to carve out a strong niche on the basis of their pricing models. Creating extremely amazing customer experience frameworks has raised the performance portfolio of organisations around the world. A 2022 report by Forbes on companies focusing on exemplary customer services indicated that Starbucks rose as the best restaurant brand in 2022 due to its dynamic customer service approach (Morgan, 2022). The value of customer service operations amplifying brand values cuts across all sectors around the world.

Every organization’s operating model should be in structured in a manner that allows its to keep up with an evolving strategy. Nokia can qualify as one of the commercial institutions around the world that failed to have its operating model answer to evolving consumer needs (Atmar, Becdach, Kleinman and Rieckhoff, 2019). The organizational pace in evaluating overall strategy should remain in clear consideration of surrounding internal factors for the purpose of eliminating confusion and creating disconnection.

AC 1.4: The Scale of Technology within Organisations and its Impact on Work

Organisations have immensely benefited from the technological revolution even as some corporate actors point out to dangers present when technology appears to take off in a more accelerated speed much more than organisations can bear. The Chartered Institute for Personnel and Development (CIPD) has consistently tracked the interaction of employees with technology placing the impact on organisations under focus (CIPD, 2020). One of the key takeaways is that technology has risen to the position of a partner to employees around the world. A workstation that required handwritten memo can now circulate memos through such tools as email, team-based digital platforms i.e Slack, TEAMS and WhatsApp groups. Web conferencing capacities now enable remote-based working processes. Facilities have access to technology that can accelerate the creation of more efficient applications and programs clearing the way for accelerated performance and a high value for money. CIPD’s 2020 report on employee experience around technology presents that a bulk of current people roles will be automated in a decade or so (CIPD, 2020). The automation implies a huge reduction on errors and a rise in reliability and delivery.

Employees have reported substantive changes in work execution after absorbing technology in their duties. CIPD reports that 32% of employees have reported changes in the use of technologies over the last one year (CIPD, 2020). About 505 of the employees surveyed by CIPD indicated the need to update their skills and match the outputs advanced by technology (CIPD, 2020). Organisations should interpret such findings to imply increased responsibility around facilitating more engaging workplaces for employees. For example, facilities should expose communication workers to consistent tool use training capable of empowering the employees into useful use of technologies. A member of staff in the communication department will not appreciate the value of web conference tools if they cannot understand mechanisms of using them.

Organisational stakeholders across various industries do promote the observation that too much workplace automation could lead to massive job losses for ‘conventional’ employees. The bulk of stakeholders promoting this position are unions, governments and employees. However, it is notable that automation amplifies efficiency and paves way of the rise of bigger and more vibrant institutions. Strengthening the institutions leads to widened opportunities. It is in the interest of organizations through their collective lobbies and associations to impress on employees that competitive industries imply increased openings. Further, technology keeps on expanding the entrepreneurial space. Start-ups offering technology support services are rising by the minute and the present extremely new workplace positions. More attention on technology-facilitated collaboration enhances organisational intersection and facilitates the insight necessary to illustrate new directions. Organisations appropriating resources towards showing employees how technology can qualify as a workplace partner are playing a right part in taking employees to the next level.

AC 2.1 Theory/Model of Organisational Culture and Theory/Model of Human Behaviour

Meritocracy (Model of Organisational Culture)

Meritocracy places an open platform for which employees can freely share their opinions but carries the prier of having leaders identify the most appropriate opinion for analysis and implementation. In a meritocracy, executives only work with the best forms of outputs and may not facilitate democracy. The framework gives room for employees to forge their path to professional growth and development only if they do so while putting their best foot forward. An organisation may opt to assess identified key performance indicators (KPIs) on individual employees and use results to elect on who deserves recognition. This culture has been hailed as a future-proof concept in ensuring that organisations only work with the best. The basis behind a successful meritocracy culture may lie within an organisation’s ability to create a passionate working environment. When leaders clearly define overall goals, facilitate substantive resources and construct an enjoyable working environment, employees tend to strongly promote meritocracy.

Taylor’s Scientific Change Management Theory (Theory of Human Behavior)

Frederick Winslow Taylor promoted a conceptual argument stating that raw encouragement to productivity did not, necessarily, inspire motivation in employees. Instead, the theorist urged executive managers to consider breaking down roles into simpler tasks as a way of enhancing higher accomplishments. In the modern world, breakdown the tasks into everyday deliverables can work in making sure that employees take the small steps to individual but professional success. The absorption of Taylor’s system of thought can influence the change of behavior in facilities with an aim of convincing employees of the easy executive nature of tasks. A sales’ officer can have their annual target broken down into shorter spans of time. The periodical achievement of the targets eventually informs the long-term success paving way of the realization of collective goals. The impression that a task is easier when broken down amplifies an employee’s sense of energy and may increase their motivation levels.

AC 2.3 Different Approaches to Managing Change

An organisation keen managing change has various options in its disposal all developed through scholarly construction, analysis of industrial reports and case studies on change issues facing institutions. The CIPD 2020 Report on the future trends within the people profession, the institute urges organisations to consider investing in future-proof skills that can enhance productivity in a rapidly changing operational environment (CIPD, 2020). Communication skills, for example, are now necessary in all professions and globalization calls for the training of employees to adopt technology-supported communication abilities. The report proceeds to encourage horizontal scanning within internal and external environments as a strategy of detecting if new shifts exist or are expected within the workplace. Such shifts could manifest by way of increased benefits, more flexible working arrangements or an absolute reconfiguration of roles.

AC 2.4 Models for how Change is Experienced

The Kubler-Ross Five Stage model posits that organizations seeking change or placed in a situation in which change is inevitable may have to experience five stages for a complete organisational overhaul. The model references psychological concepts to observe that an organisation in need of change may initially exist in a state of self-denial (Amin and Mohamad, 2017). A substantive example to highlight this aspect is the reality of institutions that faced financial crisis from fraud by top executives. It is observed that these facilities begin at the point of completely denying such realities. Consistent prodding for the truth by stakeholders, members of the public and authorities can drive the organisation into the second stage of anger. Thirdly, and based on the rise of potentially damning evidence, the organisation may get into the bargaining stage possibly trying to manage the situation. Should the situation persist, the organisation may enter into a state of non-action carrying all the elements of depression. It is this stage that paves way for the final phase of acceptance. During acceptance, it is expected that the organisation will make changes inclusive of disciplinary action on culprits. The Kubler-Ross model does present the ways in which most organizations experience chances especially during crises.

AC 2.5 Importance of Wellbeing and Factors that Impact Wellbeing

Wellbeing at the workplace works around assuring the good physical, psychological and social wellbeing of employees. According to a 2022 CIPD Report on wellbeing at work, wellbeing implies creating contentment at work, a factor that strongly favours both employees and employers (CIPD, 2022). Contented employees do not get distracted leading to consistent productivity. Healthy employees facilitate active engagement and remain in complete charge of their duties. In environments that prioritize wellbeing, employees develop high-level resilience that works in allowing them to address challenging duties (CIPD, 2022). The motivation amplified by good health and wellbeing creates energy and promotes a sense of alertness within workplaces. The wellbeing contributes to lower absenteeism arising from medical leaves and off-days, a result that enhances production and professional delivery in organisations. Organizations that diminish the importance of wellness at the workplace often run erratic working cycles and a distressed employee population.

Existent industrial information and scholarly literature suggests that intentional workplace behaviours can impact employee wellbeing. Awarding employees a sense of work autonomy can save workers from micro-management by their seniors. Staff working under bothersome supervisors tend to disengage from their jobs and the loss of focus can strongly dilute productivity. The promotion of an inclusionary culture creates a dependable support system that promotes close working relationships among employees. The presence of compassion in the work environment creates grateful employees who, in turn, willingly focus on delivering on organisational objectives. A physical sense of comfort and safety eliminates rise of physical challenges and erase chance of physical absence. A company can enhance this element by providing comfortable working tools such as ergonomic seating chairs and investing in a clear safety culture.

AC 3.2 Connection of People Practice and With Other Areas of an Organisation

The human resource framework carries immense potential of influencing how people practice can interact with other areas of an organisation. Clear communication of shared values and overall goals aligns everyone into a singular direction. Every employee works carrying the knowledge that they are supporting a larger objective and a bigger strategy. Focused employees amplify productivity and positively contribute towards the realization of an identified common agenda. The interaction of employees with one another at the workplace heavily determines the people approach. If a given department has a worker engaging cordially, it is expected that the cohesive mannerisms will diffuse to other units and support workplace integration. The presence of a supportive unit convinces the creation of an organization-wide culture of support and creates strong teams across all departments. The HR office can assist managerial teams identify relevant skills for specific duties (CIPD, 2021). A quality assurance officer possessing exceptional communication skills can easily take up communication duties in a different project.

People advancing their work assignments while carrying a high sense of clarity may allow the company to decide most appropriate roles to advance them. It is possible for an organization to temporarily fill a vacant position with an inhouse employees as the company reorganizes its conventional structure (CIPD, 2021). For example, the resignation of a senior vice president in charge of sales can facilitate the deployment of a vice president in charge of corporate communications to that slot. This framework suggests that exceptional employees always operate as assets to organizations even in the presence of varied situations. Human resources promoting the thinking of employees as assets greatly assist the organization in assessing its strength and addressing issues within the entire organisation. Guidance on performance measurement allows facilities to interpret variations in output should roles change.

AC 3.3 Processes for Consulting and Engaging with Internal Customers to Understand their Needs

Employees form an organisation’s database of internal customers and an institution’s treatment of them constructs the entire human resource output. At the foundation of active engagement with internal customers is the need to invest in clarified communication systems. Many facilities fail at the point of timely information sharing especially at the point of feedback. Active feedback illustrates engaged working environments and amplifies the trust that employees have with the organisation. An employee seeking clarification on a promotion issue can feel disengaged should the HR office or top management fail to activate strong feedback channels. Going forward, the affected employee can qualify the institution as disinterested in him/her leading to sharp declines in motivation levels. The active communication structure should be replicated across all collaborative assignments and common obligations.

Investment in employee training rises as a central theme in enhancing close consultation and engagement with internal customers. An environment that consistently places efforts on employee development creates time to understand their needs through training. The training sessions form opportunities of professional interactions and can have employees open share on the challenges they face at the workplace. The organization can construct journey maps to analyse employee trajectory. This process allows top executives a chance of understanding the process undertaken by internal customers for the entire time they have worked for the company. The journey map can point out to instances when output consistency changed or highlight instances of exceptional performance. Results from the mapping exercise can create room for changes in consulting and engagement approaches with the employees. The entire foundation behind consulting and engaging with internal customers is to create a workplace that is visibly sensitive to employees’ needs.

References

Amin, Y. and Mohamad, R., 2017. Knowledge management system model for learning organisations. International Journal of Learning and Change, [online] 9(4), p.290. Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319046529_Knowledge_Management_System_Model_for_Learning_Organizations>.

Atmar, H., Becdach, C., Kleinman, S. and Rieckhoff, K., 2019. Bridging the gap between a company’s strategy and operating model. [online] McKinsey & Company. Available at: <https://www.mckinsey.com/capabilities/people-and-organizational-performance/our-insights/bridging-the-gap-between-a-companys-strategy-and-operating-model> [Accessed 19 September 2022].

Bromley, M., 2018. Organisational structures. SecEd, [online] 2018(2), pp.4-4. Available at: <https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/sece.2018.2.4>.

CIPD, 2020. People Profession 2030: A collective view of future trends. [ebook] London: CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/people-profession-2030-report-compressed_tcm18-86095.pdf> [Accessed 12 September 2022].

CIPD, 2020. Workplace Technology: The Employee Experience. [ebook] London: CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/workplace-technology-2_tcm18-80853.pdf> [Accessed 15 September 2022].

CIPD, 2021. Strategic Human Resource Management | Factsheets | CIPD. [online] CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/hr/strategic-hrm-factsheet#gref> [Accessed 20 September 2022].

CIPD, 2022. Wellbeing at Work | Factsheets | CIPD. [online] CIPD. Available at: <https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/culture/well-being/factsheet#gref> [Accessed 16 September 2022].

Hasan, A., 2019. People Matters – Interstitial Site — People Matters. [online] Peoplemattersglobal.com. Available at: <https://www.peoplemattersglobal.com/news/diversity/google-staff-faces-retaliation-over-hr-complaints-23029> [Accessed 17 September 2022].

Hass, R. and Denmark, A., 2020. More pain than gain: How the US-China trade war hurt America. [online] Brookings. Available at: <https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2020/08/07/more-pain-than-gain-how-the-us-china-trade-war-hurt-america/> [Accessed 13 September 2022].

Morgan, B., 2022. The Top 100 Most Customer-Centric Companies Of 2022. [online] Forbes. Available at: <https://www.forbes.com/sites/blakemorgan/2022/05/01/the-top-100-most-customer-centric-companies-of-2022/?sh=11ca26c2b387> [Accessed 18 September 2022].

Terziev, V. and Klimuk, V., 2021. Factors and mechanisms affecting innovation development of industrial business organizations: cooperative resource model. SSRN Electronic Journal, [online] Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353829666_FACTORS_AND_MECHANISMS_AFFECTING_INNOVATION_DEVELOPMENT_OF_INDUSTRIAL_BUSINESS_ORGANIZATIONS_COOPERATIVE_RESOURCE_MODEL>.

Turi, J. and Sorooshian, S., 2019. The impact of organisational structure on organisational learning. Middle East J. of Management, [online] 6(2), p.204. Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335490658_The_impact_of_organisational_structure_on_organisational_learning#:~:text=Study%20shows%20that%20organic%20structural,learning%20are%20centralisation%20and%20indoctrination.>.

Yan, J., 2016. Analysis Of Apple Equipment In The Product Design Thinking. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, [online] 63. Available at: <https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/amahs-16/25865806> [Accessed 16 September 2022].

AC 1.4 Factors to consider when deciding on the content of copy used in recruitment methods.

Attracting top talents requires consideration of various materials and approaches. These materials and approaches are vital in persuading potential candidates to work for a particular organisation. Some of the key materials and approaches for luring top talents include;

An attractive job advertisement: In specific, an attractive job advertisement possesses essential details of the job vacancies for the potential applicants. The key objective of an attractive job environment is to convince potential applicants to apply for the available job positions. This advertisement can be shared on various channels such as asocial media platforms and newspapers.

An attractive reward package entails lists of rewards that a particular company offers for the employees’ responsibilities and job roles. An attractive reward package entails both monetary and non-monetary aspects to attract and retain top employees. Some of the key monetary rewards include paid leave.

A positive organisation image: Arguably, a positive organisation image entails customers’ perception of a particular organisation. In specific, a positive organisation image entails a combination of ideas and impressions that potential clients attribute to the organisation. Organisations can build a positive image through activities such as diversity hiring and effective learning and development policies.

AC 3.4 An explanation of what diversity and inclusion mean and why they are important

CIPD Professional Map (2022) argues that it is important for all people professionals to understand inclusion and diversity and their critical benefits to the organisation and the employees. Velazquez (2022) defines diversity as employing a diverse team that is reflective of the society in which the organisation exists and operates. However, identifying what makes a particular team diverse is complex; thus, professionals need to possess such skills. Velazquez (2022) adds that diversity incorporates many other factors that make individuals different from one another. Although humans have infinite differences, many people recognise diversity by a few factors such as gender, race and age. Now shifting our attention to inclusion, Velazquez (2022) defines inclusion as a workplace achievement in which all employees are treated equally, have an equal chance to excel, and are treated with the utmost respect.

 In the last few years, business leaders across the globe have prioritised diversity and inclusion owing to their immense benefits. One of the key benefits of embracing diversity and inclusion is that diversity sparks innovation. One of the best ways to think outside the box is by embracing revolutionary new strategies and techniques. Moreover, hiring a diverse workforce avail multiple talents, which can aid organisations in driving their forward thinking. Additionally, diverse leadership is also a strategic way to expand a particular organisation’s customer base. As highlighted earlier, a diverse workforce bolsters fresh thinking and new strategies—these help in attracting new customers and helping the organisation grow. Moreover, a diverse workforce boosts team performance. A study conducted by Deloitte noted that inclusive leadership boosted team output by 17% (Bourke 2018).

TASK FOUR - BRIEFING PAPER

AC 4.1 The purpose and components of performance management.

UC Berkeley (2022) defines performance management as the continuous process of communication between employee and their supervisors that occur throughout the year and in support of realising strategic objectives of a given organisation. The key objective of performance management is to ensure that employees and their teams are provided with adequate resources they require to develop, the recognition they deserve to be motivated as well as the ability to understand what is expected of them (PerformYard.com 2020). Another key purpose of performance management is reinforcing values. Regarding that, a vital key idea of to bring the organisation’s values off the wall and into a conversation between workers. To gain a deeper understanding of performance management, it is essential to highlight factors that affect individual and team performance. One of the key factors that affect individual performance is the training and development plan.

 Specifically, a training and development plan can be defined as a plan the management offers to get the most effective outcome at their workplace. Another critical factor that affects an individual or team’s performance at the workplace is workplace policies and procedures. A workplace policy is a statement that dictates how issues related to human resource management are dealt with in a particular organisation. Additionally, workplace policies communicate the company’s values and expectations of employee behaviour and performance. Informal and formal reviews also critically affect individual and team performance within an organisation. Both informal and formal reviews provide essential feedback that is vital for the success of any given organisation.

AC 4.2 The main factors that need to be considered when managing performance

Numerous factors need to be considered when managing performance. The first factor that needs to be considered is the factors that impact job performance. Arguably, multiple factors impact job performance. Some of these key factors are knowledge, experience, awareness, motives and values. Another crucial factor that needs to be considered when managing performance is the clarity of a given goal. According to Nickols (2012), it is fundamental for employees to have in mind a clear picture of any given goal they need to achieve. The author maintains that if that does not exist, the employees can’t understand if they are making progress or when they are accomplished. Nickols (2012) quotes a two-thousand years old quote, “keep the end in view,” to justify the need for a clear goal.

Another critical factor that needs to be considered while managing performance is the level of motivation. Regarding motivation, Nickols (2012) states that “it is one thing to be able to do something; it is something else altogether to want to do it.” Away from that, it is important to highlight that people want to do things for two critical reasons, which are: to serve their purpose or serve another individual purpose in which they are offered something in return. In a workplace setting, self-satisfaction and incentives are fundamental motivators. Another critical factor that needs to be considered when managing performance is work systems. Examples of work systems include information systems, supply chains and employee services (Burke 2017).

AC 4.3 Different methods of performance review

Modern-day employees are more self-aware and seek better ways to help them cultivate and improve their skills. Due to this, many organisations are working round the clock to adopt a more hands-on approach to offer regular feedback to their employees. There are several real and unbiased systems for performance evaluation. Two key performance appraisal methods are the 360-degree feedback method and self-assessment. The 360-degree feedback method focuses on collecting feedback from all individuals an employee interacts with, like line managers, customers, and colleagues. One advantage of the method is that collecting data from multiple sources reduces the chances of a manager’s bias. Additionally, the method offers a clearer picture of an employee’s workplace competence. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that employees increasingly seek unbiased and objective feedback around their performances to stay motivated. A 360-degree provides that opportunity offering unbiased multidimensional assessment involving multiple players. However, the process is time-consuming as it involves many parties. Now shifting our attention to the self-assessment method, the framework provides an opportunity to assess individuals’ contributions to the organisation, areas where they perform better, and ways to improve their work. Most companies are increasingly requesting their employees to conduct a self-evaluation regularly or annually. Some of the key issues highlighted in the self-evaluation assessments include employees’ achievements, communication skills, creativity, productivity, teamwork and time management (Fellow.app 2022). Some of the self-assessment method’s key benefits include enhancing capacity building and bolstering individuals’ confidence to perform different tasks. Some key disadvantages of self-evaluation include that employees may give a low rating to avoid confrontation with managers. By the same token, the employee may reward themselves high rating to pressure the rater.

AC 5.1 Key components (financial and non-financial) that are required to achieve an effective total reward system

CIPD (2022) recognises a reward system as a critical tool for attracting, retaining, and engaging employees. The publication further adds that a wide range of options is available to reward people and recognise their contribution. Still, on the same, an effective reward system meets the needs of its employees and the company’s purpose and culture clearly and responsibly. Specifically, the term “reward” generally covers all the financial and non-financial provisions made by employees. Financial rewards can be defined as monetary incentives that a particular employee receives mostly because of good performance. It is also vital to note that these rewards mostly align with particular organisational goals.

 In that regard, employees who help the organisation achieve its goals are rewarded. Any form of financial reward is defined as extrinsic. Normally, extrinsic rewards entail tangible rewards such as pay raises and paid work breaks. Now shifting our attention to non-financial rewards entails any form of reward that is not part of an employee’s pay. All non-financial rewards are non-intrinsic or non-tangible. Some of the most renowned non-financial rewards include career development opportunities, verbal appreciation, and workplace recognition (Sammer 2011). Unlike in the olden days, when pay was the only benefit that helped attract and retain people, modern-day employees are seeking more than that (CIPD 2022). For example, employees are increasingly seeking organisations that offer training and career development at the start of their careers.

AC 5.3 Explain the reasons for treating employees fairly in relation to pay

There are numerous perspectives on fairness at work. These may be in the form of pay, promotion, training and development. Regarding pay terms, and from an organisation’s perspective, Cotton (2019) identified fairness of pay, pay decision-making, and quality treatment of employees when procedures are implemented. Cotton (2019) argues that this organisational fairness is critical because it shows that all internal stakeholders are respected and valued. On the contrary, if employees think that an employer’s pay policy is unfair, they might not want to join or extend their stay with such an organisation. Additionally, unfair and unclear pay policies may reduce motivation.

 Cotton (2019) maintains that HR teams are important in establishing a fair pay policy. In the UK, unfair pay is illegal. In fact, concerns about unfair treatment, which have existed for a long, resulted in the Equal Pay Act of 1970. In specific, the law prohibits discrimination in terms of pay between men and women. The law is now part of the Equality Act 2010 that applies across the UK. Regarding pay, the Equality Act 2010 gives women and men the right to be paid the same amount when carrying out similar work or work of equal value. To ensure that all organisation comply with the statute, the UK government require all organisations with 250 and above employees to report their gender gap based on the data collected on the 5th of April every year (Cotton 2019).

AC 5.1 Key components (financial and non-financial) that are required to achieve an effective total reward system

CIPD (2022) recognises a reward system as a critical tool for attracting, retaining, and engaging employees. The publication further adds that a wide range of options is available to reward people and recognise their contribution. Still, on the same, an effective reward system meets the needs of its employees and the company’s purpose and culture clearly and responsibly. Specifically, the term “reward” generally covers all the financial and non-financial provisions made by employees. Financial rewards can be defined as monetary incentives that a particular employee receives mostly because of good performance. It is also vital to note that these rewards mostly align with particular organisational goals.

 In that regard, employees who help the organisation achieve its goals are rewarded. Any form of financial reward is defined as extrinsic. Normally, extrinsic rewards entail tangible rewards such as pay raises and paid work breaks. Now shifting our attention to non-financial rewards entails any form of reward that is not part of an employee’s pay. All non-financial rewards are non-intrinsic or non-tangible. Some of the most renowned non-financial rewards include career development opportunities, verbal appreciation, and workplace recognition (Sammer 2011). Unlike in the olden days, when pay was the only benefit that helped attract and retain people, modern-day employees are seeking more than that (CIPD 2022). For example, employees are increasingly seeking organisations that offer training and career development at the start of their careers.

AC 6.4 Explain how individual requirements and preferences must be accommodated in the design and delivery of learning and development initiatives.

Learners’ requirements and preferences are prerequisites for effective learning and development (Hayden 2021). Consequently, learning and development experts have attempted to develop programs that effectively cater to each learner’s needs. When selecting effective learning and development initiatives, successful course developers take into account learner preferences. Past and current research works have shown that learner preferences play a significant role in the success of any learning and development initiatives. One of the key reasons why learning and development initiatives should consider individual preferences is that different employees require and prefer-different types of training. This is because learning and development initiatives are affected by factors such as job complexity, job function or the deportment in which the employees work.

 On the other hand, all employees in an organisation have different learning and development learning times. Thus, an organisation’s role is to ensure that learning and development are offered at each of the employees’ convenience. Additionally, those developing learning and development programmes should take into consideration employees’ history of learning. For instance, it could be inappropriate to have an employee who has learned a particular course repeat the same. This is not only a waste of time but also a waste of an organisation’s resources. Moreover, training and development designers need to ensure that their programmes are ethical. For instance, it could be ethically wrong to offer training and development on Sundays in an organisation where the majority of employees are Christians.

AC 2.4 Assessment of the use of social media and advertising to recruit employees. An assessment of interviews and job references as methods of selection.

A growing body of literature recognises the importance of social media and advertising to recruit employees in the modern market. Muduli et al. (2021) defines social media recruiting can as a framework that utilizes organisation branding and recruitment marketing elements to identify, connect, and attract qualified candidates on different online platforms. This HR practice, sometimes called social hiring or social recruiting, utilises social media platforms and other internet options such as blogs to identify potential job candidates. The increased adoption of this strategy has prompted numerous HR departments to develop fully formed social media recruitment strategies. One of the key strategies that a company can adopt to attract top talent on social media is showcasing company culture on different social media platforms. SAP organisation utilises this strategy to reach millions of potential hires across the globe. Another vital strategy utilised by WAP organisations is displaying employees’ personal strategies on different social media platforms. Another vital strategy is using social media to evaluate potential candidates.

Arguably, social media profiles provide vital information regarding a particular person. Recruiters can peep at potential candidates to learn about their personality, professionalism, and overall character (Comparably, 2021). Once the right candidates have been identified, the organisation can organise interviews to allow candidates to explain who they are and their capabilities to perform particular tasks. Additionally, organisations can conduct job references to learn more about their preferred candidates. In specific, job references entail engaging employees’ former employers or colleagues to assess the candidates’ potential to conduct particular tasks. OcMara organisation can adopt social media recruitment to identify potential candidates to lead its sustainability efforts.

References

Reference

Sotnikova, Y., Nazarova, G., Nazarov, N. and Bilokonenko, H., 2020. Digital technologies in HR management. Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development42(4), pp.527-535.

Nazarova, G.V., Nazarov, N.K. and Bilokonenko, H.V., 2020. Digital technologies in HR management.           

PESTLE Analysis 2021, “Political Factors Affecting Business” PESTLE Analysis Available on:https://pestleanalysis.com-political-factorsaffecting-business/

Thobela, M., 2020. Aligning Business Processes to the Strategic Goals of the Organisation. University of Johannesburg (South Africa).

Drawing on work or personal examples, analyse how you would/have known when and how to raise concerns when issues such as organisational policies or leadership approaches conflict with ethical values or legislation. (1.5)

One of our role as people professionals is to ensure that the organisation was up at per with any legal laws and conducted its business ethically (Tursunbayeva et al., 2021). When I was just a new hire at my organisation, I was reviewing employment contracts to get familiar with roles and the organisation’s employment terms and policies. After reviewing the contracts I came to the realization that the organisation had a huge gender pay gap disparity. Men were paid way more compared to the women on the same role with the men’s income increasing by a 5% rate higher than the women. Furthermore, to avoid any conflict the employees were mandated to sign a non-disclosure agreement. It felt wrong and the organisation risked facing legal repercussions if the matter came to light. Since I was new and did not want to raise any alarm I took time to study the chain of command and who would best help solve the matter. Before the next executive meeting I approached the senior head of HR and brought the issue to light. He was surprised to get wind of the matter and asked me to make a presentation on the new employment law changes and need to chan