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Performance management is a systematic process that assists organizations in evaluating, monitoring, and improving their employees’ results. A performance management system must include the following elements:

Setting goals

This entails identifying specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) goals for each employee. Goals are established in accordance with the organization’s overall strategy and objectives and conveyed to staff at the start of the performance management cycle. For example, a customer service representative may set a quarterly goal of achieving a 90% customer satisfaction rating or a 10% increase in profit by the years end (Kimmy, 2022).

Performance management

This entails developing a performance plan for each employee that outlines their responsibilities, objectives, and goals, as well as the techniques used to assess their performance. A seller’s performance plan, for example, might highlight the sales expectations they are required to meet, the customer accounts they are in charge of, and the performance indicators that will be used to assess their success, such as the number of new accounts obtained and the value of sales generated (Kimmy, 2022).

Performance monitoring

Performance monitoring entails continuously tracking and measuring an employee’s performance as well as conducting regular feedback to the employee to help them understand their strengths and areas for improvement.

A project manager, for example, might monitor the progress of a team’s work as well as provide continuous feedback on the performance on the field, which include strengths, weaknesses, and areas that need improvement (Kimmy, 2022).

Performance evaluation

This is a formal assessment of an employee’s performance that is usually done at the end of the performance management cycle. It gives the employee and manager the opportunity to discuss the performance of the employee, set new goals, and plan for future development.

An employee’s performance appraisal, for example, could include a conversation of the employee’s accomplishments, strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement, as well as a plan for future development (Kimmy, 2022).

Feedback and Coaching

A performance management system must include feedback and coaching. Regular feedback enables staff to comprehend how they are doing and provides direction for improvement. Coaching is a more structured form of feedback that involves a mentor or supervisor assisting an employee in developing specific skills or addressing specific performance problems (White,2022).

Rewards and Recognition:

Employees who meet or exceed performance expectations can be rewarded and recognized Bonuses, promotions, and other forms of financial compensation are examples of rewards, whereas public recognition, awards, and other non-monetary incentives are examples of recognition. Organizations can use rewards and recognition to reinforce positive behaviors (White, 2022).


Kimmy, 2022, The 12 Components of A Performance Management System | Available at:

White, D., 2019, 12 Critical Elements of an Efficient Performance Management System. Available at:

Unfair dismissal is when an employer terminates an employee’s employment without a valid reason. In the UK, the principle of legislation relating to unfair dismissal is governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996. The principles of legislation relating to unfair dismissal protect employees from unjust treatment by their employer and ensure that any termination of employment is based on valid reasons and follows a fair procedure (Howe,2016). Some of the principles relating to capability and misconduct present in the UK Employee Rights Act 1996 are:


An employer must have a reasonable reason to fire an employee, such as the employee’s ability or qualifications for the job. In addition, an employer must conduct a fair and reasonable evaluation of the employee’s ability to carry out their role. An employer must consider any disabilities that an employee may have and make reasonable arrangements to support their performance. Before being fired, an employee must be allowed the opportunity to improve their performance through training and support (Howe, 2016).

The case of London Borough of Hackney v Clarke is one out of capability principle. In this case, the employee, Mrs. Clarke, was a school cleaner and was absent from work for several months due to a knee injury. Her employer dismissed her after she returned and refused to accept a less exerting job, however the employer won since he had dismissed her fairly.


An employer must have a legitimate reason to fire an employee, such as their behavior.

An employer is required to conduct a fair and reasonable investigation into alleged misconduct.

Before making a decision, an employee must be given the opportunity to respond to any allegations of misconduct. The misconduct must be serious enough to warrant dismissal and not be a minor or isolated incident.  In both cases, if an employee believes that their dismissal was unfair, they have the right to bring a claim for unfair dismissal. This can be done by bringing a case to an employment tribunal. The tribunal will consider the facts of the case and the applicable legislation and make a decision on whether the dismissal was fair or not. If the tribunal finds that the dismissal was unfair, it may order the employer to pay compensation to the employee. (Howe, 2016).

Stringer v HM Revenue and Customs is a case of misconduct. Mr. Stringer, the employee in this case, was fired for breach of trust and confidence after disclosing confidential information to a third-party contrary to The Employment Rights Act of 1996.


Howe, J. (2016). Rethinking job security: A comparative analysis of unfair dismissal law in the UK, Australia, and the USA. Routledge.

The method of acquiring and incorporating new skills and knowledge within an organization is referred to as organizational learning. It entails identifying, gathering, interpreting, and disseminating information and experiences that can be utilized to enhance organizational performance (Farsan et al., 2019). After a major product launch, for example, a company may undertake a post-launch review to see what ended up going well and what could be improved for upcoming launches. This review’s findings become part of the organization’s collective knowledge and can be used to help inform decisions and improve organizational performance. Also, after a major project is completed, a construction company might conduct a debrief to identify what went well and what could be improved for future projects. This information is then used to inform future decision-making and improve project planning and execution (Farsan et al.,2019).

Knowledge management is the systematic process of acquiring, disseminating, and effectively applying knowledge within a company. It entails identifying critical knowledge to an organization’s success, developing systems to capture and hold this knowledge, and making it easily available to employees (Farsan et al.,2019). A software company, for example, might create a knowledge management system that includes documentary evidence, tutorials, and best practices that use their products. The company can improve organizational performance by making this data readily available to employees. Also, A law firm might come up with a document management system to ensure that all legal documents are kept and organized in an orderly manner, making it easier for employees to find and use the information they require (Farsan et al., 2019).

Organizational learning and knowledge management have a cyclical relationship. Organizational learning provides the information that knowledge management systems require. In turn, effective knowledge management promotes organizational learning by making learning-related information and experiences readily available to workers. This results in a never-ending cycle of improvement and learning that propels organizational success (Njuguna, 2020).


Farsan, M.E. et al. (2019) Prime Scholars | Open Access Journals | Peer Reviewed Journals.

Njuguna, L., N, 2020, The Link Between Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management. Available at:

It refers to how committed and engaged an employee is in their work and the organization which they work for. It assesses an employee’s psychological investment in their work and the company. Employee engagement can have a significant effect on the success of a company. Employees who are engaged are more productive, innovative, and driven, and they are less likely to quit the company. This, in turn, results in increased customer satisfaction, revenue, and notoriety (Smith,2022). Employees who are engaged have several attributes:

They are more productive. Employees who are engaged are often more productive and efficient because they are motivated to do their best work and contribute to the success of the organization. This often happens especially when the management and the employees have a good rapport (Smith,2022).

They meet the needs of customers in the following ways: Employees who are engaged are more likely to provide high-quality service and go above and beyond to meet the needs of customers, resulting in higher customer satisfaction. Once customers are satisfied, they remain loyal to the organisation (Smith, 2022).

There is low or no turnover: Employees who are engaged are less likely to leave the company, which reduces the cost and effect of turnover on the organization. Instead, they work hard to receive promotions, pay rises and other forms of reward (Smith, 2022).

They have a better reputation: Companies that have high levels of employee engagement have a better track record, which attracts both customers and top talent.

They are full of imagination: Employees who are engaged are more creative and innovative, which leads to new ideas and solutions that can propel the company forward (Smith,2022).

There are various factors that can foster employee engagement which include:

Balance between life and work: Employees who have a great balance between life and work are more likely to be engaged and feel encouraged to work. This is because they have no confusion or disorderliness that could affect their performance (Tenny, 2021).

Rewards and recognition: Employees who feel valued and acknowledged for their efforts are more likely to be engaged (Tenny, 2021).

Leadership: Leaders who are encouraging, transparent, and accessible can help create a culture of engagement (Tenny, 2021).

Career nurturing opportunities: Employees who feel like they are growing and developing in their careers are more likely to be engaged (Tenny, 2021)


Smith, T.,2022, What Is Employee Engagement? Definition, Strategies, and Example. Available at:

Tenny, M.,2021, Good Examples of Employee Engagement – Business Leadership Today. Available at:


The first step in the process is recruitment, which entails advertising job openings and attracting a pool of qualified applicants. This can be accomplished through a variety of means, including job advertisements on corporate websites, social media, and job boards, as well as employee referrals and employment agencies (Balasubramanian, 2014).

This process is important because:

It shows the path the organization should take since it is the first step in staffing before selection, induction, or retention (Balasubramanian, 2014).

It Increases the number of job candidates at a minimal cost.

Helps raise the success rate of the selection by reducing the number of underqualified or overqualified job applicants (Das, 2018).

Minimizes the chances that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organization after a short period.

It meets the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce (Das, 2018).

It is a process of identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be great candidates (Das, 2018).

To Increase the individual’s short-term and long-term organizational effectiveness

Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and decide which ones to use and which ones to avoid (Das, 2018).


This includes assessing applicants’ experiences through interviews, reference checks, background checks, and other evaluation methods. The selection process’s objective is to ensure that the candidates selected have the skills needed, abilities, and ability to perform well in the role (Petersen, 2019).

It is important to select because:

A good employee needs to be hired so as to deliver high-quality and professional work

A new employee impacts the rest of the staff, they can either be motivated or demotivated (Petersen, 2019).

Employee turnover is expensive so the right applicant needs to be elected to save the organization the hustle of dismissing them (Petersen, 2019).


The final step in the process is induction, which involves introducing new employees to the organization’s culture, policies, and procedures. A well-designed induction program can make new employees feel appreciated and valued, as well as provide the guidance and assistance they need to succeed in their roles (Baddapuri, 2016).

It is necessary to induct because:

It saves a lot of money and time since an employee is guided on how to work and adapts to the new job quickly

It reduces employee turnover since the new employees are provided with information about the organization (Baddapuri, 2016).

It guarantees efficiency in work since the new employee has been introduced to the culture of the organization

It provides the necessary information to the newcomer in case of any queries (Baddapuri, 2016).

It makes the newcomer to be respected and the other employees attempt to make him feel welcome.


Baddapuri, D., 2016, Induction Training – How Does It Benefit the Company and the New Hire? Available at: (Accessed: February 10, 2023).

Balasubramanian, K. (2014). The significance of recruitment in an organization. Global Journal of Finance and Management, 6(8), 735-738.

Das, N., 2018, What is the Purpose and Importance of Recruitment? Available at: (Accessed: November 10, 2023).

Petersen, L., 2019, Why Is the Human Resource Selection Process Important? Available at: (Accessed: February 10, 2023).

Leadership and management development programs are critical in assisting individuals in growing and developing their abilities to lead and manage teams. The progress of these programs can be measured using a variety of indicators, including:

Improved Decision-Making Capabilities

Effective leadership and management necessitate individuals’ ability to make rational decisions that positively affect the direction of their teams and organizations. Decision-making skill enhancement programs can assist individuals to become more efficient problem solvers by making well-informed, data-driven, and strategic choices. For example, an organization’s decision-making quality may improve, resulting in more favorable outcomes and improved bottom-line performance (Zahid, 2019).

Employee Performance Improvement

Improving employee performance serves as one of the primary goals of management and leadership development programs. A well-designed program, for example, may result in fewer errors on a production line, increased customer satisfaction, or increased employee engagement. This can be seen in productivity increases, higher work quality, and higher job satisfaction (Zahid,2019).

Communication and collaboration have improved

Clear, effective communication and collaboration among team members are essential for leadership and management success. Individuals who participate in development programs that focus on these skills can improve their ability to communicate effectively and collaborate more effectively. A company, for example, may notice fewer conflict resolution incidents, improved team cohesion, and a more positive organizational culture as a result of these programs (Zahid,2019).

Measurable Outcomes

One of the most important indicators of success for leadership and management development programs is measurable outcomes. This includes both tangible outcomes like increased sales, enhanced customer satisfaction, and lower costs, as well as intangible benefits like greater employee engagement and motivation. Setting clear, measurable goals and tracking progress over time is critical to the success of these programs. As a result of their leadership and management development programs, a company may see an improved performance in key performance indicators such as sales growth, customer satisfaction, or employee engagement surveys (Creighton, 2019).

Leadership and managerial development programs are essential to the success of businesses and individuals. Investing in these programs increases the likelihood of an engaged and motivated workforce, better decision-making skills, enhanced communication, and a positive influence on bottom-line performance (Creighton,2019)


Creighton, K.,2019, How to Measure the Impact of Your Leadership Development Programs – HR Daily Advisor. Available at:

Zahid, A.,2019, Indicators of Successful Leadership Management Programme. Available at:

Internal data and contextual/external data are that which give insight into the environment in which an organization operates

Internal data

HR metrics, financial information, and operational data are examples of internal data within an organization. HR metrics, for example, can provide information about an organization’s human capital, such as employee satisfaction, turnover rates, and levels of productivity. This data can be used to pinpoint areas for improvement as well as to evaluate the success of HR initiatives. Financial data, such as sales and revenue figures, can be used to evaluate an organization’s financial performance and formulate financial budgets and plans. Data on company operations, for example, can be used to pinpoint areas for improvement and to track operational efficiency (St-Hilaire,2022).

Industry information

Information such as HR and economic trends can also be useful in planning. Tracking trends in HR, for example, can provide information on current best practices and new advancements in the field. This data can be used to focus on areas where the organization can set itself apart from its rivals and gain a competitive edge. Economic indicators such as unemployment and inflation rates can also be tracked by the organization in order to assess the broader economic environment and identify potential dangers and opportunities (St-Hilaire,2022).

Competitive information.

This data may include information on competitor strategies, the share of the market, and consumer feedback. Organizations, for example, can use customer reviews to continually improve their own products and services, as well as to improve their knowledge of customer needs and desires. Organizations can also use data on competitor techniques to assess their competitors’ strengths and weaknesses and to identify areas where their own methods can be improved (St-Hilaire, 2022).

Government data

Regulations and laws can also be useful in planning. Changes in government laws and regulations, for example, can have an effect on the organization’s operations and strategies, so staying notified of these modifications and ensuring compliance with relevant regulations and policies is critical. Changes in tax policies or economic incentives, for example, can be used to identify potential dangers and opportunities in the macro environment using government data.

For instance, a company that prepares fast food can use internal data, such as production data, to evaluate the effectiveness of their operations, industry data, such as trends in environmental sustainability, to pinpoint areas for enhancement in their products and services, competitive information, such as data on competing companies, to assess their competitive market, and government information, such as hazardous environmental regulations, to guarantee that their products are safe (St-Hilaire,2022).


St-Hilaire, W. A. (2022). Value-based Management in an Open Economy: Optimizing Strategy to Improve Business and Performance. CRC Press.

Increased Communication

Allow employees to develop their own ideas and make their own decisions to make them feel like they are a part of the organization. This can only happen if they are free to interact with their coworkers and leaders. When employees communicate properly, they have a sense of belonging to a community, and this interaction brings purpose to their job. It also increases employee trust and reinforces working relationships, especially with leaders (Thompson, 2021).

Excellent leadership

A good leader should be able to share information clearly and frequently. Employees should be free to express their views and question their managers. A leader should also be liable and accept responsibility for his or her actions. A good leader tries to figure out what it is that isn’t working and then works to find a solution. He or she should frequently motivate employees to keep them going (Thompson, 2021).

Employee acknowledgment

The acknowledgment of an individual’s behavior, hard work, and accomplishments in aid of the organization’s goals and values is referred to as recognition. Employees who are frequently recognized will be motivated to put in additional effort to meet the organization’s objectives (Stevens, 2022).

Provision of workplace wellness services

Employees’ health and well-being are impacted by the massive amount of stress as well as fatigue they experience because they spend the bulk of their day at work. Illnesses, both physical and mental, are unavoidable. Employees experience stress, anxiety, depression, backaches, muscle pain, and other symptoms. As a result, it is the obligation of the company to provide a healthcare system that considers an employee’s overall well-being (Thompson, 2021)

Personal and professional growth

Employees quit their jobs because there isn’t enough challenging work. Employees leave when they believe their expectations for joining an organization are not being met. As a result, it is critical for them to work in positions that will develop their personal and professional careers. As a result, management has the incentive to offer them training programs as well as intellectually stimulating work that keeps them busy (Stevens, 2022).

Delegation of responsibilities and duties

When responsibilities are clearly and concisely defined in advance, there is no room for misunderstandings or confusion. Employees can understand their daily responsibilities and how they can contribute to the company (Stevens, 2022).

Work environment

Help employees to personalize their workstations. Adjust their workstation as per their preference. Also, provide them with flexible working hours and telecommuting so that they are more efficient (Thompson,2021).


Stevens, L., 2022, The Three Elements of Employee Engagement | Preciate. Available at:

Thompson, M., 2021, What are the Components of Employee Engagement? Available at:

Employee voice helps the organization in making better decisions.

When you provide your employees with a voice and foster a company culture where they’re comfortable using that voice then they’ll be open and honest about the problems they face at work. Once you know which problems your people are dealing with, you can address them. And when your employees see you’re willing to fix the problems in your business, they’re more likely to be encouraged to come to you with more of them. They’re also comfortable with remaining in the organization since the management is concerned about their problems (Broderick, 2022).

Employee voice helps to reduce workplace conflict.

Employees need an outlet from the frustrations and friction that come from interacting with different personalities in the office (Broderick, 2022). If an employer ignores this, it can lead to reduced morale among employees. Employees need to be empowered with a real voice and you’ll give them a way to open up about workplace conflict. The management also needs to provide ways to resolve conflicts so as not to affect organizational performance. Continued conflict may not only affect the parties directly involved but also the organisation as a whole. It is essential for management to ensure there’s no bad blood at the workplace so as to create a good working environment that fosters productivity (Broderick,2022).

Employee voice enhances employee retention.

An organization that allows employee voice is more likely to retain employees as compared to one that doesn’t. If employees feel like they have a chance to speak out they are more likely to feel comfortable in the company and stick around. They’re also likely to talk to management before they consider leaving since there is open communication between management and employees (Busher, 2019).

Employee voice enhances customer success.

When you listen to your employees and respond to their feedback and they’re more likely to be happy, engaged, and productive. They’re also more likely to go the extra mile and be highly productive thus serving customers better. This creates a good name for the organization enabling it to stay afloat in the competitive market (Busher,2019).

Employee voice boosts engagement.

When your employees don’t think their opinion counts, it’s natural for them to feel like a replaceable part. Empowering them with a voice is therefore a great way to improve employee engagement. Management needs to create a friendly environment that enables workers to engage in organizational activities without fear (Busher,2019).


Broderick, D., 2022, The Link Between Employee Voice and Organisational Performance – Hive, Hive. Available at:

Busher, Assoc. C.K., 2019, Employee Voice: A Strategy to enhance Organisational Performance, Employee Voice: A Strategy to enhance Organisational Performance. Available at:

High-performance work is an approach to management that concentrates on improving employees’ skills, abilities, and motivation in order to increase overall organizational productivity. This strategy entails creating a helpful and engaging work environment that promotes employee development, providing continuous training and development opportunities, and providing competitive compensation and benefits packages (Caruso,2020).

On the other hand, investment in human capital refers to an organization’s investment in its employees through training, education, and other forms of development. This investment is intended to improve employee skills and knowledge, which can boost productivity and competitiveness (Caruso,2020). The combination of the two can lead to a number of positive outcomes for organizations which include:

Enhanced productivity

For example, an organization that provides ongoing development and training opportunities in the current technologies and tools to its employees can improve their efficiency and productivity (Fry,2020).

Employee morale and engagement have improved.

Employee motivation and engagement can be enhanced by offering opportunities for growth and development, resulting in higher levels of job satisfaction and lower rates of turnover. A company that provides its employees with flexible work arrangements and opportunities for skill development through training and mentorship programs, for example, can create a positive work environment and retain top talent (Tang,2018).

The advantage in the marketplace

Companies that make investments in their employees’ development can distinguish themselves from rivals and secure a market advantage. A company that invests in the development of its sales team, for example, through regular skills training and sales coaching, can improve its competitive edge and win more business (Tang, 2018).

improved talent management

Organizations can attract and retain top talent by focusing on employee development, and improving their ability to manage human capital successfully. For example, a company that provides a clear career progression path and opportunities for advancement to its employees can attract and retain top talent, thereby improving its overall talent management practices (Tang,2018).

Innovation and creativity

Due to the provision of development programs such as continuous training, employees are equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to be efficient in their work which means they can come up with new innovations and creative ideas (Tang,2018).


Caruso, D., 2020, What is High-Performance Working? – Beagle HR Outsourced HR Support Consulting. Available at:

Fry, W., 2020, The Benefits of a High-performance Culture. Available at:

Tang, T. W., et al. (2018). The benefits of high-performance human resource practices in the implementation of an artistic strategy in the hotel industry. In Handbook of Human Resource Management in the Tourism and Hospitality Industries (pp. 391-414).

It is an overall management approach that aims to boost effective employee involvement and commitment in order to achieve high levels of results.

High-performance working (HPW) focuses on creating a culture of trust, openness, and open communication. It entails stripping away the traditional hierarchical structure that many businesses still rely on. Instead, it involves having a flatter structure in which employees are involved, satisfied, motivated, and fully comprehend the organization’s values, behaviors, and shared purpose (Caruso, 2020).

HPW focuses on human capital creation and application. This involves offering employees the skills, knowledge, and tools required to do their jobs efficiently and effectively through training, coaching, and development programs, as well as offering workplace flexibility such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules (Caruso, 2020).

HPW also fosters a positive organizational culture that values and rewards the contribution of employees and promotes collaboration, innovative thinking, and continuous improvement, resulting in a helpful and engaging work environment. To increase employee comfort, the physical working environment can be well-designed in terms of lighting and temperature (Caruso, 2020).

In the UK several organizations have adopted high-performance working. The John Lewis Partnership, a retail company focuses on employee engagement and development. It offers extensive training, development opportunities, and working arrangements for employees, as well as a range of benefits and flexible working arrangements (Bishop, 2019) Santander has also emphasized employee development and engagement and offers great working arrangements. The company places a strong emphasis on employee development and engagement. In the public sector, the National Health Service (NHS) has implemented HPW practices to improve the performance of healthcare workers (Bishop, 2019).


Bishop, C., 2019, Eight London companies that are revolutionizing work-life balance. Available at:

Caruso, D., 2020, What is High-Performance Working? – Beagle HR Outsourced HR Support Consulting. Available at:

The human resources (HR) service delivery model is a balanced approach that describes how HR functions and processes are provided to employees in an organization. This model defines how HR products are offered, delivered, and managed to help achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. It is an important component of HR strategy because it assists organizations in aligning HR services with their business needs and increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of HR service delivery (Corona,2022). The following elements are typically included in the HR service delivery model:

HR service design: The HR department designs and implements HR services that are aligned with the organization’s goals and objectives based on an assessment of HR needs (Harrop, 2017).

Continuous enhancement: The HR department makes decisions based on the results of monitoring and evaluation.

HR services delivery: They are delivered to employees through a variety of channels, including HR portals, self-service tools, and HR call centers (Harrop,2017).

HR service monitoring and evaluation: HR department constantly monitors and evaluates the HR service delivery process to ensure its effectiveness, efficiency, and meets the needs of employees.

HR needs assessment: Entails assessing the organization’s current HR service delivery processes, identifying areas which can be improved, and determining the changes that are needed to support the organization’s goals and objectives (Harrop, 2017).

Examples of HR service delivery models:

HR service delivery model that is more centralized

HR services are highly centralized and delivered through a centralized HR department in this model. This model is appropriate for organizations with a large number of workers that need to standardize their HR processes (Harrop, 2017).

HR service delivery model that is decentralized

HR services are decentralized in this model and delivered by HR representatives who work in various departments throughout the organization. This model is appropriate for organizations with a decentralized structure that require HR services to be tailored to the particular needs of different departments (Harrop, 2017).

HR service delivery model that is outsourced

In this model, HR services are outsourced to a third-party provider. This model is suitable for organizations that lack the resources or expertise to deliver HR services within the organisation (Harrop,2017)


Corona, K., 2022, HR Service Delivery: Definition & Examples | Pipefy. Available at:

Harrop, J. J. (2017). Assessment and recommendations for effective HR service delivery model implementation for organizations. Middle East Journal of Business, 12(1), 23-27.


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Blended learning is the method of combining traditional training methods with eLearning content to create a more flexible user experience. it provides learners with the assistance and interaction of an in-class experience as well as flexible and dynamic learning opportunities outside of the classroom. The classroom allows for role-playing with instantaneous face-to-face feedback (Quigley,2019).

Online learning provides personalized, self-paced learning through eLearning components that lend themselves to interactive media such as games, videos, tutorials, quizzes, and social media components, all of which are accessible from the learner’s home page in the Learning Management System (LMS) — and accessible from the learner’s smartphone or tablet (Quigley, 2019). Some examples of blended learning are:

The Use of Flipped Classrooms

Students in a flipped classroom watch recorded lectures or read designated materials online before class, then use class time to participate in hands-on activities, group discussions, and problem-solving exercises (Quigley, 2019).

Hybrid Courses

They combine online and in-person instruction, with students attending a set number of traditional classes while completing the remainder of their coursework online (Quigley, 2019).

Personalized Education

Personalized learning allows students to work through material at their own pace and concentrate on areas where they need extra help. Online assessments, learning management systems, and adaptive learning software can help with this (Quigley, 2019).

Blended learning is important because it:

Provides adaptability

Blended learning allows students to attend traditional classes, conduct online coursework, and access digital resources at times that are advantageous for them, which can be especially beneficial for working students, parents, and people with other responsibilities (Kolinski,2022).

Increases Participation

Blended learning can create a more fun and engaging learning experience by integrating interactive online activities with traditional classroom instruction, which can assist in boosting student curiosity and motivation.

Improves Student Outcomes

Because blended learning personalizes the educational experience and allows students to focus on areas where they need extra help, it can help to improve student performance such as test scores, grades, and overall comprehension of the subject matter (Kolinski,2022).

Saves Time and Money

Blended learning can be a cost-effective solution for schools and institutions because it reduces the need for physical classroom space, as well as save time and resources for instructors, who no longer have to spend as much time preparing for in-person classes (Kolinski,2022).


Kolinski, H., 2022, What is Blended Learning? Types, Examples & Tools. Available at:

Quigley, E., 2019, What is Blended Learning? Available at:

Functional design

It divides employees into departments based on their work areas of expertise. Each department has an assigned leader who is well-versed in the job functions of each employee they supervise. Tesco in the UK uses functional structure (Gordon, 2022).

Matrix design

Team members submit to multiple managers at the same time in a matrix organizational structure. Having several supervisors allows for greater company interaction and faster project completion. When responding to functional and project managers, employees can learn skills outside of their team. While functional managers can assist in the resolution of job-specific issues, project managers can bring in knowledge or talents from other departments. BP, a multinational oil and gas company uses this design (Gordon,2022).

Divisional design

Employees are organized around a common product or geographical location. Divisional organizations have teams that specialize in a particular market or product line. The entire organization is divided by location so that strategies can be tailored to audiences from various markets. Top management determines company culture, but each division makes operational decisions independently. Unilever, a multinational consumer goods company uses divisional design (Gordon,2022).

Network design

This entails combining the efforts of two or more organizations in order to deliver a single product or service. Typically, a network organization will outsource the job to contract employees or vendors. The teams are made up of both full-time employees and freelance specialists, allowing in-house employees to spend the majority of their time concentrating on the work in which they specialize (Olmstead, 2022). Uber, a ride-hailing company uses network structure in UK

Flat design

There are few middle managers between employees and top managers which means that little or no supervision is required. This increases employee involvement and improves trust in the workplace (Olmstead, 2022). Skyscanner, a travel search engine company uses this design.


Gordon, J., 2022., Common Types of Organizational Design or Structure. Available at:

Olmstead, L., 2022., 7 Types of Organizational Structures +Examples, Key Elements – Whatfix. Available at:

A professional describes someone with high job skills and expert knowledge in their field. The term describes a person who is dedicated to their work and takes their responsibilities and roles seriously (Indeed Editorial Team, 2021). They possess professionalism, which encompasses excellent communication skills and work ethics.

What it means to be a people professional

A people professional is a person with the responsibility of managing an entity’s human resources. They are responsible for staff recruitment besides their training and development. They also administer benefits and payroll. The CIPD Professional Map posits that a people professional is an influencer and leader who partners with stakeholders to ensure that the entity’s people strategy aligns with the business strategy. People professionals are expected to follow values such as transparency and fairness to ensure that all employees are respectfully and equitably treated (Peters, 2020). This insinuates that people professionals should ensure that all employees access similar opportunities for development and growth ad that any disciplinary action is objectively and fairly taken. They should also ensure that the entity’s procedures and policies are clear and all employees easily understand them.

Additionally, they should demonstrate their commitment to the entity’s respect for diversity, ethical behaviour, and values (Peters, 2020). They should strive to develop an atmosphere where all employees are valued and respected regardless of their personal beliefs or background. The role of people professionals also dwells on providing strategic focus in people management. This enables the entity to attain its objectives.


Indeed Editorial Team. (2021). What Is a Professional? (Definition, Standards and Types). Indeed. Available at:

Peters, R. Why we call it the people profession. [online]. Available at:

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